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Is this a counter-example to Darwin's theory of evolution?


Somewhere I read following paragraphs giving one counter-example to Darwin's theory of evolution.

(By the way, I am a physicist and not a biologist, but I am interested in this field.)

Do these paragraphs point to the reality? What is the current status of "theory of evolution of species" ?

"Darwin cited the giraffe as an outstanding example of natural selection. Supposedly, as a result of extended droughts, the supply of green leaves could be obtained only at the top of the trees, and therefore the shorter necked giraffe died off. The giraffes which grew longer necks survived. However, there is no evidence whatever in the fossil record or elsewhere that giraffes with short necks have ever existed. And what would have happened to young giraffes with relatively short necks?

Darwin failed to realize that body characteristics in offsprings are determined and programmed by DNA factors of the Genes or the Genetic material of the parents, and not by the stretching of the neck or any other bodily exercise."


Giraffe necks being long because of 'reaching' is false. The neck size is due sexual selection.

The writer of the paragraph fundamentally misunderstood Darwin, he never argued that the act of stretching of necks would make them longer in subsequent generations, that is Lamarkism, which is what Darwin argued against.

Darwin postulated that there exists some sort of information carrier which can be transmitted from parent to offspring. At the time there was no understanding of DNA or of any type of 'genetic material', all of early genetics actually was done statistically on abstract 'lines' of genes with no conception of DNA. Genetics as a field of study doesn't require a DNA model for genes.

Likewise, knowing what DNA is or isn't doesn't matter to the theory of evolution. Evolution is an intrinsic process of change in any system where there is heritable variation and selection. If you have self-assembling robots competing for a limited amount of scrap metal and which can make errors (and those errors are copied to future generations) they can be thought of as evolving.

Now given the restrictions on any system of heritability, variation and selection the result is evolution. Now the question is can evolution explain speciation that we see in the natural world.

I've studied genetics for just over 10 years and so far the answer has always been yes, it explains it amazingly well. There is no alternative theory or idea which can explain the observed variation in DNA between species, in cancer cells etc… as well as Darwinian evolution does.


Darwin cited the giraffe as an outstanding example of natural selection. Supposedly, as a result of extended droughts, the supply of green leaves could be obtained only at the top of the trees, and therefore the shorter necked giraffe died off.

The term outstanding is funny in its usage here but otherwise this text is quite right so far.

However, there is no evidence whatever in the fossil record or elsewhere that giraffes with short necks have ever existed.

Actually there is. See this popular science article suggested by @James.

And what would have happened to young giraffes with relatively short necks?

The answer in the text above. It rightly saysthe shorter necked giraffe died off.

Darwin failed to realize that body characteristics in offsprings are determined and programmed by DNA factors of the Genes or the Genetic material of the parents [… ]

This is an awfully phrased sentence making it very clear that the author has no idea about genetics.

not by the stretching of the neck or any other bodily exercise

Sure. The concept that individuals stretch their necks, necks become longer and this characteristic is passed on to the offspring is wrong indeed. This is known as Lamarckism. It is funny because the above text describe natural selection and it then says that it is wrong by making a straw man, misrepresenting natural selection as a Lamarckist process.


What is the current status of "theory of evolution of species" ?

You should have a look at the post Is evolution a fact?.

You should also have a look at an intro course to evolution. There are several online and free introductory ressource of information on evolutionary biology. Understanding Evolutionby UC Berkeley is probably one of the best. It is very short, very introductory and will already teach you a lot.


The theory of evolution of species is about as solid as the theory of general relativity… may even better considering that there are no known situations in nature that invalidate it unlike say… when general relativity meets the very small and encounters the theory quantum of mechanics.

The giraffid animal which had short neck… would not have been recognized as giraffe. it would have been the ancestral species to the giraffe. The closest living relative to a giraffe is the okapi. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giraffid


12.13: Darwin and the Theory of Evolution

Natural selection can only take place if there is variation, or differences, among individuals in a population. Importantly, these differences must have some genetic basis otherwise, the selection will not lead to change in the next generation. This is critical because variation among individuals can be caused by non-genetic reasons such as an individual being taller because of better nutrition rather than different genes.

Genetic diversity in a population comes from two main mechanisms: mutation and sexual reproduction . Mutation, a change in DNA, is the ultimate source of new alleles, or new genetic variation in any population. The genetic changes caused by mutation can have one of three outcomes on the phenotype. A mutation affects the phenotype of the organism in a way that gives it reduced fitness&mdashlower likelihood of survival or fewer offspring. A mutation may produce a phenotype with a beneficial effect on fitness. And, many mutations will also have no effect on the fitness of the phenotype these are called neutral mutations. Mutations may also have a whole range of effect sizes on the fitness of the organism that expresses them in their phenotype, from a small effect to a great effect. Sexual reproduction also leads to genetic diversity: when two parents reproduce, unique combinations of alleles assemble to produce the unique genotypes and thus phenotypes in each of the offspring.

A heritable trait that helps the survival and reproduction of an organism in its present environment is called an adaptation. Scientists describe groups of organisms becoming adapted to their environment when a change in the range of genetic variation occurs over time that increases or maintains the &ldquofit&rdquo of the population to its environment. The webbed feet of platypuses are an adaptation for swimming. The snow leopards&rsquo thick fur is an adaptation for living in the cold. The cheetahs&rsquo fast speed is an adaptation for catching prey.

Whether or not a trait is favorable depends on the environmental conditions at the time. The same traits are not always selected because environmental conditions can change. For example, consider a species of plant that grew in a moist climate and did not need to conserve water. Large leaves were selected because they allowed the plant to obtain more energy from the sun. Large leaves require more water to maintain than small leaves, and the moist environment provided favorable conditions to support large leaves. After thousands of years, the climate changed, and the area no longer had excess water. The direction of natural selection shifted so that plants with small leaves were selected because those populations were able to conserve water to survive the new environmental conditions.

The evolution of species has resulted in enormous variation in form and function. Sometimes, evolution gives rise to groups of organisms that become tremendously different from each other. When two species evolve in diverse directions from a common point, it is called divergent evolution. Such divergent evolution can be seen in the forms of the reproductive organs of flowering plants which share the same basic anatomies however, they can look very different as a result of selection in different physical environments and adaptation to different kinds of pollinators (Figure 1).

Figure 1. Flowering plants evolved from a common ancestor. Notice that the (a) dense blazing star (Liatrus spicata) and the (b) purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea) vary in appearance, yet both share a similar basic morphology. (credit a: modification of work by Drew Avery credit b: modification of work by Cory Zanker)

In other cases, similar phenotypes evolve independently in distantly related species. For example, flight has evolved in both bats and insects, and they both have structures we refer to as wings, which are adaptations to flight. However, the wings of bats and insects have evolved from very different original structures. This phenomenon is called convergent evolution, where similar traits evolve independently in species that do not share a recent common ancestry. The two species came to the same function, flying, but did so separately from each other.

These physical changes occur over enormous spans of time and help explain how evolution occurs. Natural selection acts on individual organisms, which in turn can shape an entire species. Although natural selection may work in a single generation on an individual, it can take thousands or even millions of years for the genotype of an entire species to evolve. It is over these large time spans that life on earth has changed and continues to change.


Darwin's legacy

The double anniversary of Darwin's bicentenary and 150 years since publication of On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection provides the perfect pretext to enhance the public understanding of evolution.

Charles Darwin, who was born 200 years ago this month, published his collected thoughts on the evolution of life three months before his 51st birthday. The intervening nine months are packed with events in many countries on the scientific and philosophical implications of what is unquestionably the most important concept in biology (www.darwin200.org www.darwinday.org his alma mater Cambridge University follows up on its 1909 celebrations (www.darwin2009.cam.ac.uk) Nature (www.nature.com/news/specials/darwin) Science (www.sciencemag.org/darwin)).

The fact that evolutionary theory is now so well-supported experimentally and widely accepted makes it hard to appreciate the insight and intuition required at the time to formulate a theory that has survived essentially unchanged for 150 years. Consider that Darwin, and independently Alfred Russel Wallace, observed variation almost a hundred years before DNA, its molecular basis, was identified as the universal genetic material, and long before mutagenesis and meiosis were described (although notably, Gregor Mendel published almost concurrently with Darwin in 1866). Only very recent technological advances have allowed us to systematically decipher the primary changes that underlie evolution, and to understand how these changes are transformed by developmental processes into the phenotypic variation of form and function observed by Darwin. It was truly a milestone when Darwin and Wallace appreciated that all life forms are linked by common ancestry and that life's form is mutable and shaped by selection and competition.

Natural scientists at the time were obviously less specialized nevertheless, it is remarkable how Darwin integrated the relatively new science of paleontology with zoological and botanical observation, providing him with both the natural history and live evidence for phenotypic change and natural selection (it should be emphasized that others contributed to Darwin's great synthesis of thought for example, paleontologists, including Charles Lyell, had already described sequences of fossil forms in the geologic record in 1833). Evolutionary theory has had a major impact not only on paleontology, zoology, botany and ecology, but also on population and molecular genetics, and developmental biology. In today's era of unavoidable hyperspecialization, the field-bridging nature of Darwin's approach and theory serves as a reminder of the value of cross- and multi-disciplinarity. Genomics, proteomics, systems biology and quantitative cell biology would not be progressing so rapidly without input from physical scientists and mathematicians. Thankfully, funding agencies are increasingly supporting trans-disciplinary research.

Another interesting aspect of Darwin was his ability not to let his Christian faith dominate or undermine his evidence-based research. One year after first presenting it jointly with Wallace at London's Linnean Society, he bravely publicized his theory, which he knew would be perceived to be at odds with Church doctrine. One would hope that Darwin's ability to reconcile evolution with his faith will serve as a reminder to dogmatists on both sides that a religion able to absorb new ideas and insight can co-exist with science.

The impact of evolution is all-pervasive at the level of cell and molecular biology. The rapid emergence of microbial drug resistance remains a compelling demonstration of evolution in action. Recent reports have also documented the molecular basis of toxin resistance in soft-shell clams and even garter snakes. The short life cycles of microbes have helped uncover other interesting facets of evolution, such as stress-induced adaptive mutagenesis, where the DNA damage response accelerates evolutionary rate under unfavourable environmental conditions. The study of the evolution of developmental process has spawned a sizeable research community under the umbrella term 'evo-devo'. A key concept emerging is that evolutionary conservation is much more apparent at the genetic level than the developmental level. In other words, genetically stable building blocks assemble related phenotypes through a surprising variety of developmental pathways in different species. This has important implications for biologists who extrapolate observations from model organisms to human biology and who typically work in a reductionist way by changing one component at a time to study its physiological role. Many other evolution-flavoured concepts have emerged in developmental biology recently, such as the role of the chaperone Hsp90 as a capacitor — or buffer — for morphological evolution in Drosophila and Arabidopsis (although it potentiates evolution of new traits in fungi). Cell competition in Drosophila imaginal discs provides a cellular example of natural selection by competition in a closed system (the tissue): a cell with a viable but growth inhibiting change is not only outgrown by its neighbours, but also destroyed by them. This mechanism seems to occur in mammals and may have implications for tumour development. Adaptive systems are also apparent in the clonal expansion of antigen-stimulated lymphocytes and possibly cancer cells. Models for selective processes that shape neural connectivity in the brain have been called 'neural Darwinism'.

Gratifyingly, the mechanistic underpinning of many physiological processes with evolutionary connotations is being uncovered for example, the calcium signalling molecule calmodulin may underpin the variation Darwin observed in the beaks of Galapagos finches. Evolution of the eye is widely cited by supporters and detractors of evolution alike a few months ago a paper dissected the mechanism of sensory-motor coupling in plankton phototaxis, which resembles Darwin's 'proto-eye'. Indeed, we are on the verge of bypassing evolution altogether in the lab: our understanding of basic biological processes is now such that the first attempts at synthetic biology are under way, with plans to reverse natural selection by cloning extinct species such as the mammoth.


Lamarck Vs Darwin Theory Of Evolution: A Detailed Account

The discipline of biology has been revolutionized by the introduction of evolution theory by Darwin and Lamarck. Still from then, there have been strong debates on Lamarck vs Darwin theory of evolution. Though both of the theorists have proposed that living beings are evolving throughout the years as per the fluctuating environment, there are some evident differences in their core ideologies and concepts.

We have published this article to enlighten our readers about the evolution theories put forward by Lamarck and Darwin. Even the small aspects of these theories are covered in this article. Stick till the end to know how these theories have helped various scientists to arrive at various scientific explanations regarding the evolution of different living things.

The major difference between the concepts of Evolution and Adaptation
There has often been confusion between the concepts of evolution and adaptation. Many of the scholars and researchers in the discipline of biology have discussed the concepts of evolution and adaptation. Before moving on to the comparison between the Lamarck vs Darwin theory of evolution we should understand the basic difference between the concepts of evolution and adaptation.

The process of development that has been unceasingly continuing from the inception of life on earth and has led to the emergence of various life forms is termed to be evolution.

It is the approach or the process of adjusting to the environment, which is termed to be an adaptation. In order to survive in a hostile condition, every living being is required to make certain adaptations. Otherwise, the particular species would get extinct even by small changes in the environment.

Range of alteration

Evolution is a very slow process, and it sometimes takes generations to see evident changes in the organisms. Only a long-term change could be observed in this process, and changes are traceable only in a gradual passage of time.

The process of adaptation is more rapid when compared to the time taken for evolution. The changes due to adaptation could be seen n the same generation since the organism has to adapt to the new environment. Failure in suddenly adapting to the exposed environment would lead to the extinction of that species.

The features to which the living thing undergo evolution are very specific. The prolonged course of evolution would lead to the emergence of new species.

The major reason behind the process of adaptation is due to the exposure of a specific living thing to a strange and hostile environment. To sustain its life, the species require to adapt itself to the new environment.

Reversibility

The process of evolution could never be reversed since it brings fundamental changes to the species. The process of evolution comes into effect after going through various generations. Hence the species would never go back to its initial form after going through an evolution.

As mentioned in the previous section, the sudden fluctuations in the environment condition bring in effect the process of adaptation in a species. Since these are the sudden changes, the previous characteristics could be retrieved by the living thing. Hence the process of adaptation is reversible.

The process of evolution over the ages brings to the emergence of a new species.

The process of adaptation just brings phenotypic variations that would help in adjusting the new environment.

Hence from the above-conducted comparison, it is been evident that both the process of adaptation and evolution are necessary to sustain life on earth. Whereas the process of adaptation helps the living organisms to attune to the sudden changes in the environment, the process of evolution aims to bring perfection to the species by making changes at the genetic level. We hope that by now, you have a thorough hold over the concept of adaptation and evolution. Let’s move on to the detailed discussion over Lamarck vs Darwin theory of evolution.

Stance was taken by Lamarck vs Darwin on the concept of evolution and adaptation
The contribution of Lamarck vs Darwin theory of evolution to the discipline of biology was immense, though they differed in their opinion and perceptions. Their theories had both similarities and dissimilarities in their context. Let us have a detailed look at the discussion provided in the below section of this article on Lamarck vs Darwin theory of evolution.

Lamarckian Evolution Theory
It was in the year of 1801 that Jean Baptiste Lamarck has out forward his evolution theory which was named as Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics.As per his ideology, the acquired characteristics by living in a particular environment are transferred over to the later generations. The theory stated that the intriguing factors for such changes are the sudden fluctuation in the living habitat. It is to sustain in the environment that living things undergo changes by acquiring various characteristics.

The major characteristics of the Lamarckian evolution theory are that living things could pass the acquired characteristics to their younger generation. The coming generation would make more advanced adaptations to sustain in the existing environment. The best example to prove this theory was the elongated neck possessed by giraffes. It is to eat the leaves and vegetation from higher places that giraffes have acquired a very long neck. The same could be seen in every offspring of the giraffes.

To evaluate the process of evolution in an effective manner, Lamarck has proposed the below-given framework.

  • “It is the inherent force of life that leads to the upsurge in the magnitude of living things in the environment. The increase hold over the food chain and its various dimensions is achieved by the organisms by the force of life.”

As per the first law of evolution put forward by Lamarck, the volume of organs keeps on increasing by the force of its life. It is the force of life that is still making it possible for many organisms to survive on earth. One of the major instances which proves the Lamarckian evolution theory is the elongated trunks of an elephant. As per his theory, elephants earlier held very small trunks. The requirement of consuming a large volume of vegetation has coerced to them to acquire the characteristics of longer trunks. Various species keep on adapting with the surroundings to survive on the planet.

  • “The emergence of a new organ in a living being would only take place when there is a critical requirement for it. Such acquired organs or characteristics require regular biological maintenance from the body and keep on regenerating in the successors.”

It has been proposed by him in the theory that a particular organ is only introduced in an organism when it has to play a particular role in it. The new organs would help the organism to sustain in the new and changed surroundings. The same organs would be present in the younger generation of the organisms.

The specific framework in which a particular organ develops is being cleared in the third law of evolution by Lamarck. It is the persistent use of a particular organ that would bring further upgradations to it. Further advancement in the organs would help the living being in leading life in a much more comfortable way.

  • In every crucial process like reproduction and genesis, the acquired characteristics are transferred via genetic matter. The major physiological changes would sustain in the successor, and it is based on this change that further up-gradation of the organ would take place.

It is in the fourth and last law that Lamarck has systematically elucidated the idea of heredity. The acquired characteristics are transferred by means of genetic messages to the new generation.

Darwin’s Evolution Theory
Though the overall idea of Darwin’s evolution theory was the same, his thesis was based on the different processes of analysis and ideology. The study conducted by Darwin reflects that each living being possesses a certain set of unique characteristics in itself. In the field of biology, Darwin’s evolution theory is generally termed as Natural selection. It is the individualistic adaptations and changes among some living beings that have enabled them to sustain and multiply at a faster rate than others. As per his theory, the specific physiological characteristics that are crucial in the survival of a living being gets upgraded generations after generations.

The theory of evolution put forward by Darwin was more authentic and acceptable to the scientific community. The theory of natural selection proposes that only specific beings with better characteristics would get a functional advantage in the environment. The species will not get perished in a hostile environment if it holds better survival features. This ideology was named by Darwin as the ‘survival of the fittest‘. The theory majorly proposes that only the organisms which have high adaptive power could sustain in the environment of earth. The species with less adaptive nature would be considered inferior and get wiped out because of an undomesticated environment.

In the below section of this article on Lamarck vs Darwin theory of evolution, various other theories of evolution are discussed. Let us have a detailed look over it.

Various theories of evolution
In the below section of Lamarck vs Darwin theory of evolution, there are noted down some of the major theories of evolution that prevailed in the contemporary era.

Synthetic theory of evolution
The theory is also termed as the Neo Darwinism in the discipline of biology. The concept was put forward by renowned scholar Huxley. He has mentioned the process of natural selection as the crucial factor for instigating evolution in a species. The population is focused as a focal point of evolution in the Synthetic theory of evolution. In the below section of this article on Lamarck vs Darwin theory of evolution, some of the evident features of the synthetic theory of evolution are listed down.

  • Translocation of genes
  • Gene Mutation
  • Absence of gene block
  • Numerical Chromosomal Mutation

We have published various articles on the related section of Lamarck vs Darwin theory of evolution. Go through them to get a better hold over the subject of evolution.

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AP BIOLOGY

Source Used:Chapter 15.2 – “Darwin’s Theory of Evolution”
Biology 10th Edition, S. Mader

Charles Darwin:
– He attended divinity school at Cambridge and went to biology and geology lectures.
– He went on a five year trip throughout the world, and was an observant student of nature.

Geoglogy and Fossils:
– He began to realize that observed massive geological changes were caused by slow, continuous processes.
– In contrast to catastrophists, it was proposed that the earth was subject to slow but continuous geological processes that occur at a uniform rate, a theory called uniformitarianism.

Biogeography:
– The study of the geographic distribution of life forms on earth.
– There was a comparison of the animals of South AMerica and the Galapagos Islands which caused Darwin to conclude that adaptation to the environment can cause diversificatio, including origin of new species.

Natural Selection and Adaptation:
– Darwin proposed the idea that adaptations develop ove time.
– Natural Selection was proposed as a driving mechanism of evolutioncaused by environmental selection of organisms most fit to reproduce, resulting in Adaptation.
– Since the environment is always changing, there is no perfectly-adapted organism.
– Extinction occurs whenprevious adaptations are no longer suitable to a changed environment.

Organisms Have Inheritable Variations:
– Variations are essential in natural selection.
– New Variations are as likely to be harmful as helpful.
– Variations that make adaptation possible are those that are passed on from generation to generation.

Organisms Compete for Resources:
– Darwin read an essay that proposed the idea that human populations outgrow food supply which means death and famine were inevitable.
– Darwin used this and applied it to all organisms.
– Resources were not sufficient for all members to survive.

Organisms Differ in Reproductive Success:
– Organisms whose traits enable to reproduce to a greater degree have a greater fitness.
– Darwin noted that humans carry out artificial selection.

Organisms Become Adapted:
– An adaptation is a trait that helps an organism be more suited to its environment.
– Unrelated organisms living in the same environment often display similar characteristics.
– Because of differential reproduction, adaptive traits increase in each succeeding generation.

On the Origin of Species by Darwin:
– Darwin proposed a hypothesis that stated that life forms arose by descent from a common ancestor and that natural selection is a mechanism by which species can change a new species arise.

Natural Selection Can Be Witnessed:
– Scientists are currently witnessing natural selection on theGalapagos Islands with finch break sizes.
– Other examples of natural selection can be seen in marine snails,and the scarlet honeycreeper, plants and bacteria.
Industrial Melanism: An example of natural selection when there was an increase in pollution during the industrial revolution. This was when light-coloured moths became dark. Therefore, there was an increase in darker coloured moths who blended in with the dark trees. However, the remaining light-coloured moths were easily detected by predators which lead to a decrease in population of light-coloured moths.


Darwin evolution theory

The Darwin evolution theory emerges from macro-evolution. The name of the scientist was Charles Robert Darwin (12 February 1809- 19 April 1882). He proposed the theory natural selection. Darwin was naturalist, geologist and biologist. The Darwin wrote the book “The Origin of Species”.

The two important rules by Darwin:

A. Law of parcimony :It states that, the simplest model or the simple things which re connected or they behave in the simplest, so easily acceptable things are selected.

B. Okham’s principle: It is base on principle of philosophy. Consider there are 2 explanation regarding particular topic. In such case the simpler explanation is usually selected. It is called as Okham’s principle.

Postulates of Darwin

1) Over production: According to this term, like human beings all the living organisms have tendency to produce more and more. The number of progeny will higher than that of parent. For example: one tree gives rise to 1000 seeds and 1 fish can lay 100s of eggs.

2) Struggle for existence:It is the competition for food, space and mating. Each organism compete for their survival such as demands of food, space and resources, when these factors become limited, then only a few amount of organism survives. It is called as struggle for existence. For example: a one common population in which population is normal, but after over production the number of living organisms or population increases. As the population increases the resources becomes limited such as food availability decreases, space decreases. Therefore competition in population occurs, it is called as struggle for existence.

3) Variations: Every living organism have some sort of differences called variations. Variation arises during reproduction, When parent 1 and parent 2 have gametogenesis at such condition genetical changes occur and due to which variations occur.

Darwin notes down a very important thing is every living organism have variations.

4) Survival of the fittest: Survival of the fittest can be termed as winner of the better competitor. The living organisms which have ability to reproduce more than others that means have more reproduction capacity. They have less demand for survival

5) Origin of new species:According to Darwin, variations are transferring from one generation to the next generation and formation of new species occurs.

Drawbacks of Darwin:

1) Darwin work was against the bible.

2) Any selection reduce population size.

Question and answers:

1.) Who is Darwin?

Answer: The Darwin evolution theory emerges from macro-evolution. The name of the scientist was Charles Robert Darwin (12 February 1809- 19 April 1882). He proposed the theory natural selection. Darwin was naturalist, geologist and biologist. The Darwin wrote the book “The Origin of Species”.

2.) What is parcimony law?

Answer: It states that, the simplest model or the simple things which re connected or they behave in the simplest, so easily acceptable things are selected.

3.) What is Okham’s principle?

Answer:It is base on principle of philosophy. Consider there are 2 explanation regarding particular topic. In such case the simpler explanation is usually selected. It is called as Okham’s principle.

4.) What are the postulates of Darwin?

Answer: 1) Over production: According to this term, like human beings all the living organisms have tendency to produce more and more. The number of progeny will higher than that of parent. For example: one tree gives rise to 1000 seeds and 1 fish can lay 100s of eggs.

2) Struggle for existence:It is the competition for food, space and mating. Each organism compete for their survival such as demands of food, space and resources, when these factors become limited, then only a few amount of organism survives. It is called as struggle for existence. For example: a one common population in which population is normal, but after over production the number of living organisms or population increases. As the population increases the resources becomes limited such as food availability decreases, space decreases. Therefore competition in population occurs, it is called as struggle for existence.

3) Variations: Every living organism have some sort of differences called variations. Variation arises during reproduction, When parent 1 and parent 2 have gametogenesis at such condition genetical changes occur and due to which variations occur.

Darwin note down a very important thing is every living organism have variations.

4) Survival of the fittest: Survival of the fittest can be termed as winner of the better competitor. The living organisms which have ability to reproduce more than others that means have more reproduction capacity. They have less demand for survival

5) Origin of new species:According to Darwin, variations are transferring from one generation to the next generation and formation of new species occurs.


Outside the Beltway

Today at the bookstore I saw that Coulter’s book, Godless was marked 30% off and I decided to buy it. I’ve skipped the first 7 chapters as those arguments bore me (as is true of Coulter in general). But chapter 8….chapter 8 is very good, if you like looking at train wrecks that is. It is simply astonishing that somebody as intelligent as Ann Coulter is so damn ignorant. Right off the bat Coulter manages a nice bit of misdirection,

We wouldn’t still be talking about it but for the fact that liberals think that evolution disproves God. [page 199]

Evolution says nothing about the existence of God. Liberals like P.Z. Myers have acknowledged this view of evolution (i.e. it is silent on the question of God’s existence), so this is basically a bald faced lie to her readers, IMO. This is one of the oldest Creationist arguments against evolution: accept evolution and you have to accept atheism. The simple fact here is that this is patently untrue. To see that this is the case we need look not further that two sentences ahead in Coulter’s screed,

God has performed more spectacular feats than evolution.

Okay, lets accept this on faith, like a religious person would do, then it is entirely possible that God is working in ways that we can’t comprehend and that could very well mean via evolutionary processes and/or that evolutionary processes are true, and that the hand of God is not going to be found in the E. coli flagellum.

A little bit later on Coulter flips back the curtain for a quick glimpse of the falsehood that she is building with this book,

Although God believers don’t need evolution to be false, atheists need evolution to be true. [pages 199-200]

My, my what is this? People who believe in God needn’t be threatened by evolutionary theory. What is going on here? Is Coulter slipping here? And note that it isn’t merely liberals who need evolution to be true, but actually atheists. News Flash for Ann ‘Dimwit’ Coulter and her lickspittle lackys: being and athiest does not make on a liberal. I expect that last will send some commenters into a full spittle flying spectacle of outrage. “No, no, no Steve!! You fool, of course all atheists are liberals!!” Ummmm, no. They aren’t.

And then Coulter dives right back in showing her scientific ignorance,

Just to clean the palate fo a century of evolutionists’ browbeating everyone into saying evolution is a FACT and we’ll see you in court if you criticize the state religion,…[page 201]

But evolution is a fact. Lets run over to the dictionary the first definition is,

A gradual process in which something changes into a different and usually more complex or better form. See Synonyms at development.

The first definition is how we get to evolution being a fact. Organisms do change over time. In fact, Coulter must have realized she couldn’t hold the view that organisms don’t change because on 202 she backtracks and writes,

Evolution is not selective breeding, which procduces thoroughbred horses, pedigreed dogs, colored cotton and so on. Evolution is not the capacity of bacteria to develop antibiotic resistance, but which never evolves into anything but more bacteria. Evolution is not the phenomenon of an existing species changing over the course of may years-for example, of Frenchmen becoming shorter during the Napoleonic era or Asians becoming taller after immigratin to North America. In fact, evolution is not adaptive characteristics developing with a species at all. Darwin’s theory says we get new species, not a taller version of the same species. Evolutionists call such adaptations “microevolution” only to confuse people. [page 202]

So what do we call this kind of evolution? Certainly not evolution because that really isn’t evolution (and would somebody please purge the liberals at Miriam-Webster’s Dictionary before they do even more damage). Nope these changes are not evolution, that is too fanch-schmancy, and once we accept that these changes could happen and that there is a scientifically valid explanation why we might end up looking for a scientifically valid explanation for speciation events…and we can’t have that because Ann Coulter’s faith is incredibly weak.

Of course, microevolution is what biologists refer to as changes in organisms below the level of species. Macroevolution is change in organisms at or above the species level. But here is the real kicker that one couldn’t get from simply reading the bilge pumped out by Coulter, the process that lead to macroevolution are precisely the same processes that drive microevolution. In other words, if you accept microevolution, which looks like Coulter does, then you accept macroevolution in that there is no difference except the degree of change. For example, suppose we have an organism and part of the population is isolated for some reason (e.g. continental drift) and on part of the species gets bigger while the other does not change. Then we have a speciation event if the bigger species is (generally) not capable of producing fertile offspring with the smaller original species.

Coulter also does the old schtick of “it is all so amazingly unlikely it is therefore impossible!”

Which is to say evolution is the eminently plausible theory that the human eye, the complete works of Shakespeare, and Ronald Reagan (among other things) all came into existence purely by accident.

To see that this kind of reasoning is false, suppose you have to flip a coin 1,000 times and record the sequence of heads and tails, and call this sequence S. What is the probabiltiy of getting S? 1/(2 1,000 ). Go ahead, open up Excel and see what happens when you type that in. You should get the number 9.3326E-302, which is to say you first have zero, then the decimal point, then 301 more zeroes then 9. A really, really, really small number. So amazingly small it couldn’t happen, so you really didn’t just sit there and flip a coin 1,000 times and don’t show me the data that you did. I don’t care if you have video tape showing you did it, Ann Coulter says you didn’t and that is good enough for me.

So in just 3.5 pages Ann Coulter has managed to tell the entire world what a complete ignoramus she is when it comes to logical thinking, basic reasoning, and scientific knowledge (grade school scientific knowledge mind you, not cutting edge molecular biology). And given all this Ann Coulter writes that evolutionary theory has all the scientific rigour of Scientology. Of course, given this we can only assume that Ann Coulter is as addle-brained as your typical Scientologist.


Finches on the Galápagos Islands resembled a mainland finch but there were more types.

What were some of the variations in the finches that darwin observed?

Darwin proposed that each bird was descended from the mainland species. This idea is known as COMMON DESCENT

What was Lamark's model of evolution?

Natural Selection and Adaptation

What are the four steps of evolution by natural selection.

There are three consequences of natural selection.

1. An increasing proportion of individuals will have the adaptive characteristics.
2. The result of natural selection is a population adapted to its local environment.
3. Extinction occurs when adaptatins are no longer suited to the environment

How can natural selection explain the finches on the galapagos?

How can it explain the 9 subspecies of giraffes in Africa?

Artificial Selection

Describe how artificial selection works with respect to dog breeds.


Darwin’s Theory is Racist

If we want to discover the roots of racism in the 21 st century, we need to look no further than Darwin’s (1859) The Origin of Species. The original title for this book was On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. This title remained until the sixth edition when in the 1872 printing it was changed to its present form.

Today, many popular movements like Black Lives Matter, which began in response to the acquittal of George Zimmerman in the shooting death of Trayvon Martin, have rallied around cases of alleged police brutality against people of color. Because many in our society make the mistake of rushing to judgment before all the facts are known, this group and others have been guilty of lumping legitimate cases of police brutality together with cases of unjustifiable violence by the police against minorities.

The question we should be asking is “how can we rid ourselves of racism, if the people are failing to identify racism’s root causes.” If we are going to identify the basis reasons for racism, we will need to define the term. The Merriam Webster online dictionary gives the “full” definition of racism as follows:

1: a belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that racial differences produce an inherent superiority of a particular race
2: racial prejudice or discrimination

The Merriam Webster “student” definition of racism is:

1: belief that certain races of people are by birth and nature superior to others
2: discrimination or hatred based on race

With these definitions in mind, we can conclude that racism is antithetical to the biblical model. The Bible teaches that every human being is created in the image of God, Gen. 1:27, and are, therefore, worthy of respect. God’s Word clearly opposes discrimination based upon race or gender, noting that the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob is impartial with regard to the entire human race, Matt. 5:45 Acts 10:34-35, the marital covenant or gender, Eph. 5:21, even with regard to ethnicity, Rom. 10:12.

If the testimony of the Holy Scriptures leaves no room for bigotry, racial or otherwise, we should take a long hard look at the predominant worldview that forms the basis for the indoctrination of students. It is indoctrination and not education, because only one version of the truth is taught, the Theory of Evolution. It is presented to students as a proven scientific fact. You are not allowed to offer any criticism or alternative explanation, none. This is not education. We do not teach our students to think critically and, with regard to evolutionary teaching, we do not allow them to think for themselves at all.

I will simply share with you a few quotes from some of the leading voices in the world of 20 th century evolutionary thought. Make no mistake about this many of the scientists I am quoting here were avowed Marxists. According to quotes from within their own ranks, many were candid about wanting to produce a Marxian-inspired evolutionary biology.

In his book, The Origin of Species Revisited, Wendell R. Bird (1991) noted outspoken atheist Michael Ruse referring to Gould, Lewontin, and Oparin, noting that Oparin was quite open to his subscription to Marxist-Leninist philosophy of nature, and consciously applied it to his work on the appearance of new life. Haldane and Bernal were also Marxists. According to Ruse, (the late Stephen Jay) Gould was also a Marxist, who wrote that racism was also heavily supported by evolutionists as a logical outgrowth of their Darwinism. Here are some of the quotes attributed to Stephen Jay Gould.

Biological arguments based on innate inferiority spread rapidly, after evolutionary theory permitted a literal equation of modern ‘lower’ races with ancestral states of higher forms…

…Biological arguments for racism may have been common before 1859, but they increased by orders of magnitude following the acceptance of evolutionary theory. The litany is familiar: cold, dispassionate, objective, modern science shows us that races can be ranked on a scale of superiority.

…At this point, I hasten to add that I am not selecting the crackpot statements of a bygone age. I am quoting the major works of recognized leaders.

Today, our country is being destroyed from within by the unseen enemy who seeks to divide and conquer all of humanity with his fear-based lies, John 8:44. He inspires race baiters and those they influence. Most of them are woefully ignorant of the root causes of the racism they so passionately decry. This loathsome creature infects and corrupts the sciences with the false belief system of goo-to-you evolution. While Darwin’s theory masquerades as scientific fact, racism continues to dominate our society, some real, some feigned, but always rooted in the godless worldview called Darwin’s Theory of Evolution.

Do not be deceived, Darwin’s theory is racist. When Darwin is properly understood, it leads to the justification for believing that certain races of people are by birth and nature superior to others and that is the definition of racism.


Watch the video: ΑΝΑΤΡΟΠΗ ΘΕΩΡΙΑΣ ΕΞΕΛΙΞΗΣ ΔΑΡΒΙΝΟΥ ΑΠΟ ΑΣΤΡΟΦΥΣΙΚΗ (November 2021).