It is about 1-2 mm long. It also can fly and it stays on the wall.
It looks to me like a cigarette beetle- they can infest many different types of products so I would definitely check everything carefully. Here's the link I used as a source, you can find more info here: https://www.orkin.com/other/beetles/cigarette-beetles/
Insects also are the most highly developed class of invertebrate animals, with the exception of some mollusks. Insects such as the bees, ants, and termites have elaborate social structures in which the various forms of activity necessary for the feeding, shelter, and reproduction of the colony are divided among individuals especially adapted for the various activities. Also, most insects achieve maturity by metamorphosis rather than by direct growth. In most species, the individual passes through at least two distinct and dissimilar stages before reaching its adult form.
In their living and feeding habits, the insects exhibit extreme variations. Nowhere is this more apparent than in the life cycle of various species. Thus the so-called 17-year locust matures over a period of 13 to 17 years. The ordinary house fly can reach maturity in about ten days, and certain parasitic wasps reach their mature form seven days after the eggs have been laid. In general the insects are very precisely adapted to the environments in which they live, and many species depend on a single variety of plant, usually feeding on one specific portion of the plant such as the leaves, stem, flowers, or roots. The relationship between insect and plant is frequently a necessary one for the growth and reproduction of the plant, as with plants that depend on insects for pollination. A number of insect species do not feed on living plants but act as scavengers. Some of these species live on decaying vegetable matter and others on dung or the carcasses of animals. The activities of the scavenger insects hasten the decomposition of all kinds of dead organic material.
Certain insects also exhibit predation or parasitism, either feeding on other insects or existing on or within the bodies of insect or other animal hosts. Parasitic insects are sometimes parasitic upon parasitic insects, a phenomenon known as hyperparasitism. In a few instances an insect may be parasitic upon a secondary parasite. A few species of insects, although not strictly parasitic, live at the expense of other insects, with whom they associate closely. An example of this form of relationship is that of the wax moth, which lives in the hives of bees and feeds on the comb that the bees produce. Sometimes the relation between two species is symbiotic. Thus ant colonies provide food for certain beetles that live with them, and in return the ants consume fluids that have been secreted by the beetles.
One of the most interesting forms of insect behavior is exhibited by the social insects, which, unlike the majority of insect species, live in organized groups. The social insects include about 800 species of wasps, 500 species of bees, and the ants and termites. Characteristically an insect society is formed of a parent or parents and a large number of offspring. The individual members of the society are divided into groups, each having a specialized function and often exhibiting markedly different bodily structures. For discussion of the organization of typical insect societies, see articles on the insects mentioned above.
All insects have three pairs of legs, each pair growing from a different part of the thorax, called, from front to back, the prothorax, the mesothorax, and the metathorax. Many larvae have, in addition, several pairs of leglike appendages called struts, or prolegs. The forms of the legs vary, depending on their uses, but all insect legs are made up of five parts. In winged insects, the wings, usually four in number, grow from the thorax between the mesothorax and the metathorax. The upper and lower membranes of the wings cover a network of sclerotized tubes, called veins, that stiffen the wing. The pattern of veins of the wings is characteristic of most insect species and is extensively used by entomologists as a basis for classification.
Insect abdomens usually have 10 or 11 clearly defined segments. In all cases the anal opening is located on the last segment in some species, such as the mayflies, a pair of feelers, called cerci, is also present on this segment. The abdomen is devoid of legs. In female insects, it contains the egg-laying organ, or ovipositor, which may be modified into a sting, saw, or drill for depositing the eggs in the bodies of plants or animals. Insect sexual organs arise from the eighth and ninth segments of the abdomen.
Insects have an external rather than an internal skeleton this exoskeleton is a rough integument formed by the hardening of the outer layer of the body through impregnation with pigments and polymerization of proteins, a process known as sclerotization. The exoskeleton at the joints does not become sclerotized and therefore remains flexible.
Most insects possess wings during at least part of their life cycles. Insect wings are large folds in the exoskeleton composed of two sheets of cuticle permeated with stiff supportive veins. The wings are powered by two sets of muscles that independently drive the upstroke and downstroke of the wing movement. The frequency of wingbeats ranges from 4 beats per second in butterflies to nearly 1000 beats per second in some gnats.
Insect wings not only move up and down but they also move forward and backward in an ellipse or figure eight pattern that provides both lift and thrust. Given their shape, speed, and stroke pattern, it has never been clearly understood how insect wings can generate enough lift to sustain flight. Recently scientists discovered that insects generate a vortex, or spiral air motion, along the leading edge of their wings. This vortex flows out toward the wing tip in widening spirals. The whirling cylinder of air above the insect provides the extra lift that makes flight possible.
Certain species of insects breathe through the body wall, by diffusion, but in general the respiratory system of members of this class consists of a network of tubes, or tracheae, that carry air throughout the body to smaller tubelets or tracheoles with which all the organs of the body are supplied. In the tracheoles the oxygen from the air diffuses into the bloodstream, and carbon dioxide from the blood diffuses into the air. The exterior openings of the tracheae are called spiracles. The spiracles are situated on the sides of the insect and are usually 20 in number (10 pairs), 4 on the thorax and 16 on the abdomen. Some water-breathing insects have gill-like structures.
The circulatory system of insects is simple. The entire body cavity is filled with blood that is kept in circulation by means of a simple heart. This heart is a tube, open at both ends, that runs the entire length of the body under the exoskeleton along the back of the insect. The walls of the heart can contract to force the blood forward through the heart and out into the body cavity.
What is this small insect called? - Biology
The scientific name for what most of us consider bugs is arthropods. Arthropods include insects, spiders (called Arachnids), and crustaceans. Crustaceans don't usually count as "bugs". These include crabs, lobster, and shrimp. An arthropod is defined as an animal having a hard exoskeleton with joints and paired jointed legs.
There are more types of insects than any other type of animal on the planet. The main categories of insects are butterflies, moths, beetles, centipedes, flies, grasshoppers, and social insects. Insects tend to be small, but can vary in size from nearly invisible to over 7 inches long.
- Insects all have a hard external covering made of something called chitin.
- Their bodies are made up of three sections called the head, the thorax, and abdomen.
- All insects will have a pair of antennae on their head.
- They all have six legs connected to the thorax (arachnids will have eight legs).
- Some insects have wings connected to the thorax and can fly.
Insects are born from eggs. Young insects are called nymphs. As insects grow, they get a new hard outer covering by getting rid of the old covering and growing a new one. This process is called molting.
Social insects live in large groups and work together to survive and build their homes. Some examples are bees, ants, wasps, and termites.
The study of insects is called entomology.
There are over 100,000 species of arachnids. The word arachnid comes from a Greek word meaning spider. As a result, arachnids are commonly called spiders. However, there are some non-spider like bugs such as scorpions and ticks that are included in arachnids.
- They have two main body sections called the cephalothorax and the abdomen.
- They have eight legs.
- They have simple eyes versus the insect's compound eyes.
- Unlike insects they do not have antenna or wings.
- They have an exoskeleton and lay eggs.
1. 4 pairs of legs
The Four Stages of Complete Metamorphosis
Complete metamorphosis gives insects greater advantages in terms of survival, with each stage characterized by its behavioral, anatomical and physiological changes. Even the environment in which each form exists can differ.
Various theories exist as to the triggers for the passing from one stage into the next, including starvation, critical weight, gene upregulation, temperature, hormonal stimulation and time. However, the presence, quantity and balance of 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and juvenile hormone (JH) are probably the most important chemical guides of the process of complete metamorphosis.
Egg Stage of Complete Metamorphosis
The egg provides the genetic information necessary for all growth and function, including the blueprints for imaginal discs. Imaginal discs are present in insect embryos and eventually become anatomical parts of adult forms. Imaginal discs have the capacity to develop into carapaces, compound eyes, mandibles and exoskeletons, for example.
Insect eggs are produced in large numbers and deposited by way of the female ovipositor on protected, hidden surfaces. Where the egg is laid depends on the diet of the larval form. Butterflies lay their eggs on the underside of specific leaf types which their young will consume. One example is the cabbage white butterfly, who’s larvae decimate cabbage leaves as they gather the energy required for the next stage of complete metamorphosis.
The shell of an insect egg – the chorion – is tough. It forms within the adult female before fertilization, meaning sperm must enter by way of a network of channels or micropyles that provide access to the center of the egg via the chorion. Similarly, oxygen is transported in and carbon dioxide out through aeropyles. Aeropyles are not always present in the chorion of eggs laid under the surface of water. Instead, gases diffuse passively through multiple pores.
A further structure found on the chorion of both terrestrial and submerged insect eggs is the plastron network or the chorionic plastron which holds a thin sheet of air close to the surface of the egg. This ensures a supply of oxygen, even when the egg is covered by water.
Larval Stage of Complete Metamorphosis
The worm or maggot shape of an insect larva is usually a far cry from its adult form. Upon hatching from the egg, its primary goal is to consume energy in preparation for the huge morphological changes of the next stage of complete metamorphosis. This means that the most developed part of any larva’s anatomy is the alimentary canal.
Larvae also present with imaginal discs or imaginal buds that later form parts of the adult anatomy. The majority of larvae will go through at least one instar or larval stage, where it is necessary for the larva to cast off its skin to give it room to grow. In larva, this process has two stages: the separating of the cuticle from the underlying cells (apolysis), and the shedding or molting of the skin (ecdysis).
The final larval stage is known as the prepupa here the constant urge to feed stops and the larva becomes inactive.
Pupal Stage of Complete Metamorphosis
In the pupal stage, the imaginal discs of the insect embryo and larva become active. A carefully timed process of cell death and cell proliferation occurs, where larval cells die off and are broken down to provide energy for the countless processes involved in the development of an adult insect. An adult must be able to reproduce, and it is at this stage that the reproductive organs develop. The image below shows the various life stages of the ant.
The above image shows the different forms of the ant, from egg to pupal form.
It is important to distinguish between the pupal stage and the pupa structure. In the stage between larva and adult the insect is called a pharate. The protective housing that surrounds the pharate is known generically as a pupa this is often derived from the hardened cuticle of the now immobile larva. Other names including chrysalis, cocoon and tumbler depend on the insect type or additional covering materials, such as silk.
Imago Stage of Complete Metamorphosis
The emergence of an adult insect from the pupa is termed eclosion. Hormones released at the end of the pupal stage soften the shell wall, allowing the adult insect to emerge. The pupal case is left behind as an empty shell, and for a time the adult insect finds itself particularly exposed to the elements and predators.
This is because all wings are crumpled and damp, and the adult insect is unable to fly. Until the venous network of the wings has first been filled with meconium, and then with hemolymph through the pumping actions of the abdomen, an adult winged insect is very much at risk.
When the wings have unfolded, structures within dissolve and only small amounts of hemolymph are required to circulate within the wing veins, keeping them very lightweight and efficient. The insect is now mobile and able to fulfill its goal – to reproduce.
Arthropods have a life cycle with sexual reproduction. Most species go through larval stages after hatching. The larvae are very different from the adults. They change into the adult form in a process called metamorphosis. This may take place within a cocoon. A familiar example of metamorphosis is the transformation of a caterpillar (larva) into a butterfly (adult). Other arthropod species, in contrast, hatch young that look like small adults. These species lack both larval stages and metamorphosis.
UPDATE: A response to io9’s piece. (Here’s a direct link to this bit)
At io9, Annalee Newitz has written an interesting piece criticising much of the coverage of this story, including this post, and specifically the use of the term “female penis”. I disagree with many of her points and stand by the use of the term.
But first, to clarify, I absolutely agree with Newitz that cheap dick jokes are doing the topic a disservice, which is why you won’t find any here. The tone is as deadpan as I can muster—the only sniggering is reserved for the part of the study where one mating pair gets pulled apart and the male is accidentally bisected.
As to the other parts of Newitz’s critique, she repeatedly says that “female penis” is an inaccurate term that is “anthropomorphizing” Neotrogla’s anatomy—one should call the organ a “gynosome” (which I also do). I don’t agree that gynosome is accurate, while penis is not. As Diane Kelly, who studies penises points out: “As a technical term, a penis is a reproductive structure that transfers gametes from one member of a mating pair to another.” Which is exactly what is happening here.
Newitz points to differences. “When was the last time you found a penis that grew spines, absorbed nutrients, remained erect for 75 hours, or allowed its owner to get pregnant?” Actually spines are pretty common long sexual bouts are pretty common and the gynosome doesn’t absorb nutrients—it collects sperm packets that contain nutrients, which the animal then eats in the normal way. The key difference is that rather than delivering sperm, it collects it—as I stated right up top. And the only reason we think of penises as sending sex cells in that direction is that we never knew any other set-up could occur. Now we do, which either forces us to introduce a new term and demand that it be used, or to expand the bounds of our old term. I prefer the latter. I’m generally a lumper, rather than a splitter.
The gynosome is very much like a penis in both form and function. The authors highlight the differences by giving it its own specific name. But they also acknowledge its similarities to what we typically think of as penises by describing the organ as such, both in the title of their paper—“Female Penis, Male Vagina, and Their Correlated Evolution in a Cave Insect”—and throughout its text. They don’t get any special privilege because of their authorship, of course—but I’m pointing out that you can either look at this discovery through the lens of difference or similarity. And similarities are actually critical here because evolution crafts organs that are convergently similar—though different in the details—thanks to similar selection pressures.
In fact, there is a long tradition in anatomy of describing organs with almost metaphorical names. A snail’s foot is not remotely the same as a human’s foot, but they’re both muscular locomotive organs that are kinda on the bottom of the body. We call them both feet. An octopus radula is not a human tongue, but they’re both mobile things inside the mouth that perform feeding functions, so we call them both tongues. “Eye” gets used to refer to all manner of light-detecting organs regardless of huge differences in their anatomy, evolutionary history, physiology, because they all share the common theme of detecting light. And in a similar vein, a Neotrogla penis/gynosome is not the same as a human penis but they’re both used during penetrative sex for the transfer of gametes. Other penetrating sexual organs, like the aedagus (insect) and gonopodium (fish) are also colloquially known as penises.
So, do we make a special case for sex-related terms? Newitz would say yes, because of the cultural and social baggage that “female penis” carries, in a way that “snail foot” does not. This is the strongest part of the argument, and the part that gives me pause.
But Newitz also argues that the term “erases one of the most beautiful things about life, which is its awe-inspiring diversity”, and there I disagree. The post above specifically references that diversity—not just in Neotrogla but other animals like hyenas and seahorses, and goes into detail about sexual selection. It ends deliberately with a quote about how the split between males and females comes down to sex cells, and everything else is labile. If that’s not celebrating the diversity of life, I don’t know what is. I don’t think that referring to Neotrogla’s female sex organ as a penis whitewashes that diversity. If anything, it forces us to realise that one of the traits we often link to a penis–that it lives on a male–isn’t a necessary truth. The usage expands what we know, rather than erases.
Sense Of Touch
Touch is an extremely important sense to insects and – like smell – insects have developed many different ways to detect mechanical stimulus. These all involve some form of physical change in the receptor.
The most common are hairs attached to nerves which react when the hairs are moved – these are called Trichoid sensilla.
Another common type looks more like a drum, with something pressing up against the skin of the drum from beneath – these are called Campaniform sensilla. Mechanoreceptors detect not only the physical interaction with another body, but also air movements, changes in air pressure and also changes in the stresses being applied to the insects cuticle (thus allowing it to better control its movements and maintain balance).
Insects also use modified forms of the various sensory detectors described above to detect changes in temperature, humidity and also in some cases to detect infra red radiation, x-ray radiation and the Earth’s magnetic field.
- You can see the bed bugs themselves, their shed skins, or their droppings in mattress seams and other items in the bedroom.
- There may also be blood stains on sheets.
It can be done, but it usually requires what is called an "integrated pest management" (IPM) approach. This combines techniques that pose the lowest risk to your health and the environment. Try these strategies:
- Clean and get rid of clutter, especially in your bedroom.
- Move your bed away from walls or furniture.
- Vacuum molding, windows and floors every day. Vacuum sides and seams of mattresses, box springs and furniture. Empty the vacuum or the bag immediately and dispose of outside in a sealed container or bag.
- Wash sheets, pillow cases, blankets and bed skirts and put them in a hot dryer for at least 30 minutes. Consider using mattress and box spring covers &ndashthe kind used for dust mite control&ndashand put duct tape over the zippers.
- Seal cracks and crevices and any openings where pipes or wires come into the home.
Biological Success of Insects
Biological success, as measured in terms of Darwinian fitness, refers to the ability of an organism to survive and reproduce successfully. Differential reproductive success is the key to a species’ evolution over time. Individuals with the most favorable traits in a particular environment will be able to survive and leave more offspring. This is deemed “survival of the fittest” and is due to a mechanism called natural selection. Charles Darwin described natural selection as the means by which organisms evolve. Based on this description, organisms with some adaptive advantage will be the most successful. In the animal kingdom, a myriad of examples exist of organisms with interesting and unique adaptive traits.
One group of animals, though stands out the arthropods, specifically, the insects. There are believed to be a billion billion (10^18) arthropods on Earth. Two thirds of ALL species known are arthropods. Amazingly, more species of insects exist than ALL other organisms combined. (1) Insects exist in virtually all habitats on Earth whether terrestrial, aquatic, or in the air. This being said, since biological success is a numbers game, the insects win hands down.
Why are insects so successful, you may ask? Favorable adaptations abound in this group, flight being the most significant. The ability to take flight allows insects to exploit more resources in more locations, while at the same time escaping predators and finding mates. The wings of an insect are actually not appendages, but instead, are extensions of the cuticle, which make up the exoskeleton of arthropods. The exoskeleton is composed of a rigid polysaccharide known as chitin that provides a protective covering for these organisms. Extensions of the cuticle formed at some point in the evolutionary past of insects that allowed them to take flight. This left the true appendages free to specialize in order to utilize a wide variety of food sources, to forage, to act as a means of locomotion, to collect sensory input, to mate, or to defend the insect from predators.
Another interesting adaptation seen in most insects is metamorphosis. Metamorphosis involves having several developmental stages through which the organism moves during its life cycle. The most familiar form of metamorphosis in insects is called complete metamorphosis and involves eggs hatching into a larval or worm-like form that later becomes encapsulated in a cocoon or pupa. The adults emerge from the pupal stage with a quite different appearance from that seen in the larvae. The metamorphosis seen from caterpillar to butterfly provides a common example of this phenomenon. Having different life stages allows insects to again utilize resources in such as way as to maximize success. The main job of the larval forms of insects is to feed and larvae have very different food requirements than the adult forms. Adults are more interested in the reproduction and propagation of the species. There are some adult insects who lack mouth parts entirely so specialized is there reproductive purpose.
Camouflage, mimicry, and amazing defensive capabilities are other significant advantageous and adaptive traits. Camouflage, also known as cryptic coloration, provides a classic example of natural selection in insects. The peppered moth studied by H.B. Kettlewell, is famous. In this study, Kettlewell found that the dark form of the moth became favored due to environmental pollution resulting in an evolutionary shift in the population. Other interesting examples of camouflage can be seen in the mantids. Not only do mantids show cryptic coloration, but also they have a wide variety of structural adaptations. They have evolved cuticle projections that resemble flowers as seen in the Malaysian flower mantid, sticks as in an African form, and leaves as in the Peruvian leaf mantid. (1&2) Mimicry also increases the fitness of many species of insects. Mimicry involves a nontoxic, possibly palatable species resembling the appearance of a toxic, unpalatable species. A common example of this is the Monarch Butterfly and its mimic the Viceroy Butterfly. By mimicking a toxic species, the Viceroy increases its fitness and its ability to pass on this favorable adaptation to its offspring. Another interesting aspect of insect defense is the use of chemical “warfare”. One of the best-known insects for this is the Bombardier Beetle. This beetle stores two chemicals that when mixed generate excessive heat and a foul-smelling spray that is aimed at a likely predator. Darwin, himself, was an avid beetle collector and was believed to have wrangled a Bombardier beetle. (3)
Whether it be flight, a protective exoskeleton, specialized appendages, differing developmental life stages, or camouflage, the many adaptations of insects have allowed them to fill the niches our Earth has to offer. With vast species diversity, a huge variety of habitats, and unrivaled numbers, the insects are the most biologically successful group of animals on Earth. (1)
Whiteflies are tiny, snow-white insect pests that (when viewed under a magnifying glass) resemble moths. When viewed without magnification, these insects look more like flying dandruff! Although they might resemble moths, they are actually more related to scale insects. In fact, they are often confused with soft scale insects. Both adult and nymph stages feed by sucking plant juices. Heavy feeding by these pests can give plants a mottled look, cause yellowing and eventually death to the host plant.
Sticky honeydew excreted by these insects glazes both upper and lower leaf surfaces, permitting the development of black sooty mold fungus. Besides being unattractive, sooty mold interferes with photosynthesis, which retards plant growth and often causes leaf drop.
The most common and perhaps most difficult to control insect pests in greenhouses and interior landscapes are whiteflies. Three common species of whiteflies, the greenhouse, sweet potato and banded wing, are potential pests on a wide variety of crops. They attack a wide range of plants including bedding plants, cotton, strawberries, vegetables, and poinsettias. In addition to attacking many different crops, whiteflies are difficult to control. The immature stages are small and difficult to detect. Growers often buy plants, unaware of the whitefly infestation present.
Once adults develop and emerge inside a greenhouse or hothouse, they quickly become distributed over an entire crop or infest other available plants. Chemical control programs directed at the pest often have limited success. Two life stages (egg and pupa) are tolerant of most insecticides. Control measures are also complicated by the insects clinging on to the underside of leaves, making them difficult to reach with chemical or oil sprays.
All species of this plant pest develop from the egg through four nymphal instars before becoming adults. Elapsed time (from egg to adult) varies with species. Eggs are deposited on the undersides of leaves and are often found in a circular or crescent-shaped pattern. The "crawler" hatches from the egg, moves a short distance and then settles and begins feeding -- sucking juices from its plant host. The remainder of the nymphal development is spent in this sedentary condition. The adult whitefly emerges from the pupal case and flies to other host plants to lay eggs and begin the cycle again. Fourth instar nymphs (called pupae) and adults are most frequently used to distinguish one species from another.
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When choosing a product for eliminating whiteflies from your flowers and plants, remember that each product might kill only specific stages of the pest. You might also consider that the preferred product can have other uses, such as indoor or outdoor pest control.
For example, Pesticide oil sprays and Safer Insecticide soap do little damage to adult whiteflies they mainly eliminate nymph and pupa stages of the whitefly. Talstar One Bifenthrin Concentrate, Permethrin Pro, Tempo SC and Pyrethrin-Rotenone sprays eliminate adult and nymphs only. Oil Spray is best for year-round prevention. While oil sprays, Safer Soap and Pyrethrin-Rotenone are used extensively on plants, they are not the products of choice when treating homes for general purpose pest control.
Permethrin Pro and Tempo SC can be used in a wide variety of situations: indoor pest control (boxelder bugs, roaches, ants, silverfish, etc.), outdoor pest control (ornamentals) and (in the case of Tempo SC) can be used for treating restaurants and other commercial food plants. For best, long-term control of plant pests Talstar One usually works far better than other sprays, producing excellent knock down of existing white flies as well as longer residual than other insecticides.
Choose the product best suited for your over all needs.
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Apply your insecticide when first stage nymphs or adults have emerged. In heavy whitefly populations of mixed life stages, two to three applications per week may be necessary to bring the population under control with a contact insecticide. Read and follow label instructions each product can have different limits on how often applications can be made.
Proper application of the insecticide is also a key component to a successful pest control program. It is necessary to deliver the insecticide to the undersides of leaves to achieve good control. As many crops mature, a dense canopy of foliage forms that interferes with pesticide delivery. With these crops, it is necessary to control whiteflies prior to the formation of this canopy or to space plants so they can be treated adequately.