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Is Hemoglobin binding to oxygen the same as Adsorption


I have recently been reading about Hemoglobin and came across how it binds to oxygen. This seems very similar to Adsorption. Is the process of Hemoglobin binding to oxygen through Adsorption ?


From the Wikipedia article you cite the answer to your question is clearly NO. They seem very different: absorption is described as a surface phenomenon, whereas oxygen binding occurs in a single internal pocket in each globin subunit and forms a specific bond to an Fe(II) atom. The chemical nature of this pocket is quite different from that of the surface of the protein.

The Wikipedia article states:

Adsorption is the adhesion of atoms, ions, or molecules from a gas, liquid, or dissolved solid to a surface.[1] This process creates a film of the adsorbate on the surface of the adsorbent.

and

Similar to surface tension, adsorption is a consequence of surface energy. In a bulk material, all the bonding requirements (be they ionic, covalent, or metallic) of the constituent atoms of the material are filled by other atoms in the material. However, atoms on the surface of the adsorbent are not wholly surrounded by other adsorbent atoms and therefore can attract adsorbates.

However if you consult a text-book which describes the biochemistry of haemoglobin, such as Berg et al. you will find the specific chemical nature of the binding clearly described, as indicated by this extract:

The iron atom lies in the center of the protoporphyrin, bonded to the four pyrrole nitrogen atoms. Under normal conditions, the iron is in the ferrous (Fe2+) oxidation state. The iron ion can form two additional bonds, one on each side of the heme plane. These binding sites are called the fifth and sixth coordination sites. In hemoglobin, the fifth coordination site is occupied by the imidazole ring of a histidine residue from the protein. In deoxyhemoglobin, the sixth coordination site remains unoccupied… The binding of the oxygen molecule at the sixth coordination site of the iron ion substantially rearranges the electrons within the iron so that the ion becomes effectively smaller, allowing it to move into the plane of the porphyrin (Figure 10.19).

The only similarity I can see is that in both processes the interaction of the gas with the material to which it binds is controlled by the pressure of the gas. However in the case of haemoglobin there is a distinct difference from absorption in that the dependency on pressure exhibits a sigmoidal curve, specifically suiting it for the role of quantitative delivery of oxygen to the tissues at a particular small reduced pressure range.

You sound as if you come from the physical sciences. If so, prepare to be surprised at how smart a chemist Mother Nature is.


Difference Between Haemoglobin and Myoglobin

The capability of the binding oxygen molecule, with the heme proteins, is what makes a difference in both the molecules. Haemoglobin is called as tetrameric hemoprotein, while myoglobin is called monomeric protein. Haemoglobin is found systematically all over the body, while myoglobin is found in muscles tissues only.

Haemoglobin is made of protein and prosthetic group and is well known for carrying oxygen pigment. It is the most vital part to sustain life as it works in transporting oxygen as well carbon dioxide throughout the body.

Myoglobin works for muscles cells only, by receiving oxygen from the RBC and further carry it to a mitochondrial organelle of muscles cells. Subsequently, this oxygen is used for cellular respiration to create energy. In this article, we will consider the remarkable points which differentiate the haemoglobin and myoglobin.


What is Hemoglobin

Hemoglobin is a multi-subunit globular protein with a quaternary structure. It is composed of two α and two β subunits arranged in a tetrahedral structure. Hemoglobin is an iron-containing metalloprotein. Each of the four globular protein subunits is associated with non-protein, prosthetic haem group, which binds with one oxygen molecule. The production of hemoglobin occurs in the bone marrow. Globin proteins are synthesized by ribozomes in the cytosol. Haem part is synthesized in the mitochondria. A charged iron atom is held in the porphyrin ring by covalent binding of iron with four nitrogen atoms in the same plane. These N atoms belong to the imidazole ring of the F8 histidine residue of each of the four globin subunits. In hemoglobin, iron exists as Fe 2+ , giving the red color to red blood cells.

Humans have three hemoglobin types: hemoglobin A, hemoglobin A2 and hemoglobin F. Hemoglobin A is the common type of hemoglobin, which is encoded by HBA1, HBA2, and HBB genes. The four subunits of hemoglobin A consist of two α and two β subunits (α2β2). Hemoglobin A2 and hemoglobin F are rare and consist of two α and two δ subunits and two α and two γ subunits, respectively. In infants, the hemoglobin type is Hb F (α2γ2).

Since hemoglobin molecule is composed of four subunits, it can bind with four oxygen molecules. Thus, hemoglobin is found in the red blood cells, as the oxygen carrier in the blood. Due to the presence of four subunits in the structure, the binding of oxygen increases as the first oxygen molecule binds to the first haem group. This process is identified as cooperative binding of oxygen. Hemoglobin makes up of the 96% of the dry weight of a red blood cell. Some of the Carbon dioxide is also bound to hemoglobin for transportation from tissues to lungs. 80% of the carbon dioxide is transported via plasma. The structure of hemoglobin is shown in figure 1.

Figure 1: Hemoglobin Structure

Function of Hemoglobin


Researchers reveal origins of complex hemoglobin by resurrecting ancient proteins

A test tube of purified ancestral hemoglobin, reconstituted as it existed more than 400 million years ago. Credit: G. Hochberg.

Most biological processes are carried out by complexes of multiple proteins that work together to carry out some function. How these complicated structures could have evolved is one of modern biology's great puzzles, because they generally stick together using elaborate molecular interfaces, and the intermediate forms through which they came into being have been lost without a trace.

Now an international team of researchers led by University of Chicago Professor Joseph Thornton, Ph.D., and graduate student Arvind Pillai has revealed that complexity can evolve through surprisingly simple mechanisms. The group identified the evolutionary "missing link" through which hemoglobin—the essential four-part protein complex that transports oxygen in the blood of virtually all vertebrate animals—evolved from simple precursors. And they found that it took just two mutations more than 400 million years ago to trigger the emergence of modern hemoglobin's structure and function.

The study, "Origin of complexity in haemoglobin evolution," will be published online in the journal Nature on May 20. The team also includes scientists at Texas A&M University, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, and Oxford University (UK).

Each hemoglobin molecule is a four-part protein complex made up of two copies each of two different proteins, but the proteins to which they are most closely related do not form complexes at all. The team's strategy, pioneered in Thornton's lab over the last two decades, was a kind of molecular time travel: use statistical and biochemical methods to reconstruct and experimentally characterize ancient proteins before, during and after the evolution of the earliest forms of hemoglobin. This allowed them to identify the missing link during hemoglobin evolution—a two-part complex, consisting of two copies of a single protein, which existed before the last common ancestor of humans and sharks. This ancient two-part complex did not yet possess any of modern hemoglobin's critical properties that allow it to bind oxygen in the lungs and deliver it to distant cells in the brain, muscles and other tissues.

By introducing into this missing link protein various mutations that occurred during the next historical interval, they found that just two mutations on the protein's surface triggered formation of the four-part complex and imparted the critical changes in its oxygen-binding function.

The traditional view of the evolution of biological complexity—first proposed by Charles Darwin and elaborated recently by Richard Dawkins—is that complexity increases gradually through a long journey of many mutations, each of which is favored by natural selection because it causes small improvements in function and fitness. The new research shows that, at the molecular level at least, new complex forms can be brought into being very quickly.

"We were blown away when we saw that such a simple mechanism could confer such complex properties," Thornton said. "This suggests that jumps in complexity can happen suddenly and even by chance during evolution, producing new molecular entities that eventually become essential to our biology."

The project began when Pillai, a graduate student in the Department of Ecology and Evolution, approached Thornton and Georg Hochberg, Ph.D., a postdoctoral scholar in his laboratory, with the idea that hemoglobin could be a test case to see how complex molecules evolved throughout history.

"Hemoglobin's structure and function has been studied more than perhaps any other molecule," said Pillai. "But nothing was known about how it originated during evolution. It's a great model because hemoglobin's components are part of a larger protein family in which the closest relatives don't form complexes but function in isolation. Their history can be reconstructed from the sequences of its modern descendants, and there are great laboratory tools for characterizing their properties."

Thornton said that Pillai's idea was "brilliant, and it inspired a massive amount of experimental work by Arvind and the rest of the team." Speculation about how hemoglobin might have evolved goes back at least 60 years to Linus Pauling and Max Perutz, the founding fathers of protein biochemistry, but until now there was no way to study the problem experimentally.

Analysis of the ancient proteins' atomic structures showed how the two mutations took advantage of even more ancient features to assemble the intermediate two-part complex into the four-part complex. The mutations introduced two changes on the protein surface that allowed it to bind tightly to the surface of the other protein, which remained unchanged as it was recruited into the new interaction. Other ancient parts of the two surfaces also stuck together simply by chance, adding further strength to the interaction that was triggered by the two new mutations. Those older elements, Thornton pointed out, and even the two-part complex itself, must have existed then by chance, rather than because they enhanced the protein's final structure or function, because they evolved before those properties came into being.

Perhaps the most surprising result was that the two critical mutations, by inducing formation of the four-part structure, also triggered the critical changes in the complex's oxygen-binding functions. Hemoglobin can perform its physiological function because its affinity for oxygen is high enough to bind oxygen in the lungs, but low enough to release it in the tissues elsewhere in the body. It also binds oxygen cooperatively: When one of the four components takes up a molecule of oxygen, the other components tend to do the same—and this happens in the reverse direction, as well—so the whole complex becomes even more effective at recruiting oxygen and releasing it in the right places.

Hemoglobin's ancient precursors—including the missing link two-part complex—bound oxygen too tightly and were not cooperative, so they could not have effectively performed the oxygen-exchange function. The researchers found that the two key mutations not only conferred the four-part structure but also imparted hemoglobin's critical oxygen-binding properties. Although the mutations are on the part of the protein's surface that assemble the complex together—not at its oxygen-binding site—the two regions are connected by an ancient string of amino acids found in all members of the globin protein family. When the four-part complex assembles, this string moves, and the oxygen-binding site is reshaped in a way that makes it bind oxygen more loosely. And when one component of the hemoglobin complex does bind oxygen, the string moves back, reshaping the surface that binds the neighboring proteins together, which allows the neighbor to get better at binding oxygen, too. In this way, complex functional properties appeared as an immediate side effect when hemoglobin's ability to assemble first evolved.

"Imagine if those two mutations never occurred, or if the structural features that they took advantage of weren't in place at the time," Thornton said. "Hemoglobin as we know it would not have evolved, and neither would many of the subsequent innovations that depend on efficient oxygen transport, like rapid metabolism and the ability to grow much larger and move much faster than our ancient marine ancestors."

The study will be released on May 20, 2020, on the Nature website and on May 28 in the journal's print issue. Co-authors along with Pillai, Hochberg and Thornton include University of Chicago graduate student Carlos Cortez-Romero, Yang Liu and Arthur Laganowsky of Texas A&M University, Anthony Signore and Jay F. Storz of University of Nebraska-Lincoln, and Shane Chandler and Justin Benesch of Oxford University (UK).


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What is hemoglobin, and should you worry that it’s in your blood?

If you like breathing and being alive, you should be very fond of hemoglobin. This iron-bearing compound is biology’s designated oxygen carrier.

Image credits Murtada al Mousawy / Flickr.

With very few exceptions, blood is a distinctive, intense crimson. The color is given off by the high levels of hemoglobin (also spelled ‘haemoglobin’) in erythrocytes, red blood cells. Although that sounds like a fancy type of goblin, it’s actually a metalloprotein. And we should be very thankful that it’s there! Animals of our size would arguably not be possible without hemoglobin.

Important delivery

Your red blood cells are roughly 96% hemoglobin by dry weight, and around 35% when hydrated. This extremely high content should be our first indication of how critical the protein is for our organisms. So what exactly does it do? Well, in essence, it works as the body’s fuel supplier. Hemoglobin-laden cells make sure that there’s enough oxygen reaching tissues in your body for them to be able to generate energy (respiration).

Hemoglobin is the body’s designated oxygen carrier. Each molecule of it — at least, of the version the human body uses — can securely bind to four oxygen molecules and quickly let them go when needed. While blood can naturally carry some oxygen dissolved in its plasma, the hemoglobin in our red blood cells increases its ability to carry oxygen seventy-fold. Which is very good for us.

Although its main job is to carry oxygen to and fro, that’s not the only gas it can carry. Hemoglobin is also involved in scrubbing the ‘exhaust’ from cells, carrying around 25% of the CO2 produced by our cells, and shuttles nitric oxide (NO) around the body.

What exactly is it?

Like all other proteins, hemoglobin is a 3D structure created from multiple amino acids that are bound together, then folded around themselves. The term hemoglobin makes a direct nod to the molecule’s shape from the root Latin word ‘globus’ (meaning ball). While different lineages can employ heme/globin proteins (that’s the name of the wider family of these proteins) with different structures, the one humans and mammals use is made up of four sub-assemblies called ‘globular proteins’. The particular way these link up together is known as a globin fold pattern and is widely seen in the heme/globin family.

The thing that makes hemoglobin so important is an iron ion (atom) sitting in the middle of these four sub-sections. This is the specific area where O2 molecules reversibly bind to the protein, to be carried away. This iron atom is, in turn, welded to the protein through four covalent bonds with nitrogen atoms. Depending on the exact valence of this iron atom, either ferric or ferrous, the protein will be able to bind oxygen compounds. “Ferric” iron, or iron(II) can bind it, while ‘ferrous’ iron, iron(III), cannot. When not in use, this iron atom binds to a water molecule as a placeholder.

Carbon dioxide, on the other hand, binds to other areas of the heme proteins that make up the hemoglobin molecule.

What happens when it doesn’t work?

Hemoglobin’s reactivity and ability to bind to a long list of compounds is usually its key strength, but mostly because it can also easily unbind these molecules. One gas that throws a wrench in that approach is carbon monoxide: a colorless, odorless gas that’s very deadly.

The issue with this carbon monoxide (CO) is that once it binds to hemoglobin, it forms carboxyhemoglobin. This compound makes the bond between the cell and oxygen much more stable and, as such, harder to break down later on. For starters, this means that any red blood cell that has encountered a carbon monoxide molecule has its ability to transport oxygen dramatically (if not completely) reduced. Secondly, the reaction between these two produces a release of mitochondrial free radicals. These cause oxidative stress, which could be the main driver of aging, and also attract leucocytes (white blood cells) to the area.

A few of the effects of carbon monoxide poisoning, on a biological level, include damage to endothelial cells (the ones that membranes and blood vessels are made of), most notably damage to the vasculature of the brain, and lipid peroxidation (chemical cell damage) of brain membranes. Because carboxyhemoglobin is a very bright red, the skin of CO poisoning victims can take a pink or purple hue. It only takes ambient concentrations of around 0.1% to cause unconsciousness and possibly death.

Carbon monoxide is the product of an incomplete burn. It’s most commonly found in smoke from low-burning or smoldering fires. Any fire that doesn’t have access to as much oxygen as it ideally wants will produce some amount of CO. This carbon monoxide is also produced in cigarettes and is one of the main causes of feeling out of breath after a smoke. Up to 20% of all oxygen-binding sites can be blocked by CO in heavy smokers.

Image credits ZEISS Microscopy / Flickr.

A bit ironically, the process through which hemoglobin is recycled in our spleen is the only natural source of carbon monoxide in the human body, and it accounts for the baseline levels of this gas found in our bloodstream. Each healthy red blood cell lives to around 120 days before being recycled.

Cyanide (CN-), sulfur monoxide (SO), sulfide (S2-), and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) groups also like binding to hemoglobin and not letting go, making them very toxic to us. Avoid breathing them in at all costs.

A too-low number of red blood cells — and thus, insufficient hemoglobin to carry gases around — is known as ‘anemia’. Anemia is the most common blood condition in the US, affecting around 6% of the population. In very broad terms, it is caused by either loss of blood, the inability to produce enough red blood cells, or conditions that lead to a rapid loss of such cells, although some cases are caused by genetics.

Women, older individuals, and those with long-lasting conditions are more likely to have anemia. Old age and chronic medical conditions can cause anemia by damaging the body’s ability to produce and recycle hemoglobin women are more likely to develop iron-deficiency anemia due to the blood loss related to their menstrual cycle.

Symptoms of anemia include dizziness, or feeling like you’re about to pass out headaches unusual heartbeat patterns, shortness of breath, cold hands and feet, tiredness and physical weakness pain in the chest, belly, bones, or joints, or swelling, can also be a symptom.

Any hemalternatives?

Oxygenated hemoglobin gives the blood in our arteries its scarlet color unoxygenated blood flowing back to the heart and lungs is a darker color, although the veins that carry it often appear a bit more purple or blueish. A related compound known as myoglobin is why our muscles, or the muscles in red meat are shiny red but also a bit grey. Myoglobin works pretty much the same as hemoglobin with the difference that it’s not meant to carry oxygen around, but rather keep it stored for use. Structurally, myoglobin only has one binding site (it can hold less oxygen than hemoglobin) but the bond is much more stable.

But if you want to go full blue blood, you can go for hemocyanin. This is the second-most common molecule used to transport oxygen in blood after hemoglobin and is seen in many mollusks or anthropods. It substitutes iron heme groups for copper-bearing ones, and turns a very rich blue when oxygenated.

If you want to go for pink or violet, instead, try hemerythrin. It’s not a very commonly seen compound, with a handful of species, mainly marine vertebrates and a few worms (annelids), using it. It does stand out for turning clear when not oxygenated.

What annelids do like to use, however, are hemerythrin and erythrocruorin. They’re pretty similar in structure but with significantly different heme groups. Hemerythrin appears red when oxygenated and green when not. Erythrocruorin is common in earthworms and has the distinction of being a huge molecule, containing up to hundreds of heme-protein subsections and iron-ion binding sites.

Finally, a more exotic use of heme proteins is found in leguminous plants such as beans. They employ leghemoglobin to draw oxygen away from the nitrogen-fixing bacteria around their roots oxygen here would impair the process of reducing nitrogen gas to nitrogen, which is a key nutrient for all plant-life and which imposes a ceiling on their ability to grow.


Is Hemoglobin binding to oxygen the same as Adsorption - Biology

The Chemistry of Hemoglobin and Myoglobin

At one time or another, everyone has experienced the momentary sensation of having to stop, to "catch one's breath," until enough O2 can be absorbed by the lungs and transported through the blood stream. Imagine what life would be like if we had to rely only on our lungs and the water in our blood to transport oxygen through our bodies.

O2 is only marginally soluble (< 0.0001 M) in blood plasma at physiological pH. If we had to rely on the oxygen that dissolved in blood as our source of oxygen, we would get roughly 1% of the oxygen to which we are accustomed. (Consider what life would be like if the amount of oxygen you received was equivalent to only one breath every 5 min, instead of one breath every 3 s.) The evolution of forms of life even as complex as an earthworm required the development of a mechanism to actively transport oxygen through the system. Our blood stream contains about 150 g/L of the protein known as hemoglobin (Hb), which is so effective as an oxygen-carrier that the concentration of O2 in the blood stream reaches 0.01 M the same concentration as air. Once the Hb-O2 complex reaches the tissue that consumes oxygen, the O2 molecules are transferred to another protein myoglobin (Mb) which transports oxygen through the muscle tissue.

The site at which oxygen binds to both hemoglobin and myoglobin is the heme shown in the figure below.

At the center of the heme is an Fe(II) atom. Four of the six coordination sites around this atom are occupied by nitrogen atoms from a planar porphyrin ring. The fifth coordination site is occupied by a nitrogen atom from a histidine side chain on one of the amino acids in the protein. The last coordination site is available to bind an O2 molecule. The heme is therefore the oxygen-carrying portion of the hemoglobin and myoglobin molecules. This raises the question: What is the function of the globular protein or "globin" portion of these molecules?

The structure of myoglobin suggests that the oxygen-carrying heme group is buried inside the protein portion of this molecule, which keeps pairs of hemes group from coming too close together. This is important, because these proteins need to bind O2 reversibly and the Fe(II) heme, by itself, cannot do this. When there is no globin to protect the heme, it reacts with oxygen to form an oxidized Fe(III) atom instead of an Fe(II)-O2 complex.

Hemoglobin consists of four protein chains, each about the size of a myoglobin molecule, which fold to give a structure that looks very similar to myoglobin. Thus, hemoglobin has four separate heme groups that can bind a molecule of O2. Even though the distance between the iron atoms of adjacent hemes in hemoglobin is very large between 250 and 370 nm the act of binding an O2 molecule at one of the four hemes in hemoglobin leads to a significant increase in the affinity for O2 binding at the other hemes.

This cooperative interaction between different binding sites makes hemoglobin an unusually good oxygen-transport protein because it enables the molecule to pick up as much oxygen as possible once the partial pressure of this gas reaches a particular threshold level, and then give off as much oxygen as possible when the partial pressure of O2 drops significantly below this threshold level. The hemes are much too far apart to interact directly. But, changes that occur in the structure of the globin that surrounds a heme when it picks up an O2 molecule are mechanically transmitted to the other globins in this protein. These changes carry the signal that facilitates the gain or loss of an O2 molecule by the other hemes.

Drawings of the structures of proteins often convey the impression of a fixed, rigid structure, in which the side-chains of individual amino acid residues are locked into position. Nothing could be further from the truth. The changes that occur in the structure of hemoglobin when oxygen binds to the hemes are so large that crystals of deoxygenated hemoglobin shatter when exposed to oxygen. Further evidence for the flexibility of proteins can be obtained by noting that there is no path in the crystal structures of myoglobin and hemoglobin along which an O2 molecule can travel to reach the heme group. The fact that these proteins reversibly bind oxygen suggests that they must undergo simple changes in their conformation changes that have been called breathing motions. that open up and then close down the pathway along which an O2 molecule travels as it enters the protein. Computer simulations of the motion within proteins suggests that the interior of a protein has a significant "fluidity," with groups moving within the protein by as much as 20 nm.


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What's to know about hemoglobin levels?

Hemoglobin is an iron-rich protein in red blood cells. Oxygen entering the lungs attaches to the hemoglobin in the blood, which carries it to the tissues in the body.

When someone has insufficient red blood cells or the ones they have do not work properly, the body is left short of the oxygen it needs to function. This condition is called anemia.

Here, we will look at the role of hemoglobin, and how levels of it in the blood are tested. We also examine the main kinds of anemia in more detail and explore ways to prevent the condition.

Share on Pinterest Hemoglobin is a protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout the body.

Each hemoglobin protein can carry four molecules of oxygen, which are delivered throughout the body by red blood cells. Every one of the body’s billions of cells needs oxygen to repair and maintain itself.

Hemoglobin also plays a role in helping red blood cells obtain their disc-like shape, which helps them move easily through blood vessels.

How are hemoglobin levels tested?

Hemoglobin levels are measured by a blood test. Hemoglobin, or Hb, is usually expressed in grams per deciliter (g/dL) of blood. A low level of hemoglobin in the blood relates directly to a low level of oxygen.

In the United States, anemia is diagnosed if a blood test finds less than 13.5 g/dL in a man or less than 12 g/dL in a woman. In children, normal levels vary according to age.

High hemoglobin levels could be indicative of the rare blood disease, polycythemia. It causes the body to make too many red blood cells, causing the blood to be thicker than usual. This can lead to clots, heart attacks, and strokes. It is a serious lifelong condition that can be fatal if it is not treated.

High hemoglobin can also be caused by dehydration, smoking, or living at high altitudes, or it can be linked to other conditions, such as lung or heart disease.

Low hemoglobin levels usually indicate that a person has anemia. There are several kinds of anemia:

  • Iron-deficiency anemia is the most common type. This form of anemia occurs when a person does not have enough iron in their body, and it cannot make the hemoglobin it needs. Anemia is usually caused by blood loss, but can also be due to poor absorption of iron. This can happen, for example, when someone has had gastric bypass surgery.
  • Pregnancy-related anemia is a kind of iron-deficiency anemia, which occurs because pregnancy and childbirth require a significant amount of iron.
  • Vitamin-deficiency anemia happens when there are low levels of nutrients, such as vitamin B12 or folic acid (also called folate), in the diet. These anemias change the shape of the red blood cells, which makes them less effective.
  • Aplastic anemia is a disorder where blood-forming stem cells in the bone marrow are attacked by the immune system, resulting in fewer red blood cells.
  • Hemolytic anemia can be the result of another condition, or it can be inherited. It occurs when the red blood cells are broken up in the bloodstream or the spleen.
  • Sickle cell anemia is an inherited condition where the hemoglobin protein is abnormal. It means the red blood cells are sickle-shaped and rigid which stops them flowing through small blood vessels.

Anemia can also be caused by other conditions, such as kidney disease and chemotherapy for cancer, which can also affect the body’s ability to make red blood cells.

Newborns have a temporary anemia when they are 6-8 weeks old. This occurs when they run out of the red blood cells they are born with but their bodies have not made new red blood cells. This condition will not affect the baby adversely unless they are sick for some other reason.

Babies can also have anemia from breaking down cells too quickly, which results in yellowing skin, a condition known as jaundice. This often occurs if the mother and baby have incompatible blood types.


Evaluating Hemoglobin Levels

A hemoglobin level is usually measured as a part of a complete blood count (CBC). The results of other lab tests may also help determine the cause of hemoglobin problems.

  • Total RBC count such as MCHC (mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration), MCH (mean corpuscular hemoglobin), and MCV (mean corpuscular volume) , which measures iron stores in the body

Normal Hemoglobin Ranges

Normal hemoglobin levels vary by age and sex. They're measured in grams per deciliter (g/dL).


Watch the video: Binding of oxygen to haemoglobin (November 2021).