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Why are bees attracted to Stag Hides in Lime bath


A friend has some stag hides in lime-water solution. He noticed the stag hides were covered in bees of several different species. He also noticed that the nearby sheep hides in a similar bath have no bees. What attracts the bees to the stag hides? Alternatively, what repels them from the sheep?

There are a lot more bees when the sun shines. The bees principle seemed interested in the hairy side of the hides. There is a small stream and a dried up pond nearby, so probably other places if they just wanted a drink. There is no noticeable scum on the water of either container.


Photos of the stag hides:


Photo of the sheep hides:


Short answer: They are probably looking for minerals from the lime

Explanation: Insects from time to time need minerals (salt) they can't get from there floral diet. Because they can't chew these directly of rocks, they suck these up from puddles or occasionally from human sweat. This behaviour is well known from butterflies, but also from honeybees

Notice BTW that there are indeed several bee species (Probably Apis mellifera, Bombus terrestris agg. and Bombus lapidarius), but also several flies including Eristalis cf. tenax, a hoverfly.

Why not from the sheep hides? I'm not sure, but the water around the sheep hides looks awfully brown, suggesting there are a lot of humic acids un the water. That might be less attractive to the insects.


The 5 Best Calcium Removers

When calcium (a primary ingredient in limescale) builds up around your fixtures, the average cleaning solution likely won't cut it. The best calcium removers, on the other hand, can get your bathroom, kitchen, or outdoor area looking like new again, but before you purchase any calcium removers, consider the best consistency and formula for your needs.

Calcium removers come in a wide selection of consistencies, including liquids, pastes, and scouring sticks. They all have their pros (and cons), but for the most part, liquids are easy to apply, pastes are especially concentrated, and scouring sticks work without unwanted odors or chemicals.

No matter the consistency, these formulas aim to break down hard minerals, either on a chemical level or a physical level. Most options claim to be relatively harmless, but if you're concerned about harsh ingredients and fumes, opt for a scouring stick or a more natural formula instead.

Ready to get your kitchen, bathroom, and beyond sparkling? Here are the five best calcium removers the internet has to offer.

We only recommend products we love and that we think you will, too. We may receive a portion of sales from products purchased from this article, which was written by our Commerce team.


The Truth About Pheromones

The sight of someone in tears might make you feel concerned. But the smell of tears, researchers say, has a different effect.

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“You might think—we did—that [smelling] tears might create empathy,” says Noam Sobel, a neurobiologist at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel. He and his colleagues had women watch a sad movie scene, collected their tears and placed samples of the unidentified fluid under men’s noses. The tears did not elicit empathy in a standard lab test, but they did reduce the men’s sexual arousal and testosterone levels. Apparently the tears sent a message that romance was off the table.

This study offers some of the most recent evidence that people perceive all sorts of interesting things about one another through olfaction. Airborne molecules that elicit a reaction in a member of the same species are called pheromones, and the most famous ones are potent aphrodisiacs, like androstenone and androstenol in the saliva of male boars. If a fertile female gets a whiff of these molecules, she’ll present her rear to the male, a universal gesture in wild pig patois that means, “Let’s start a family.”

Researchers (as well as fragrance companies) have been hoping to find a human sex pheromone for decades, but so far the search has failed, says George Preti of the Monell Chemical Senses Center in Philadelphia. “That doesn’t mean a human sex pheromone doesn’t exist,” Preti is quick to add. “It just means we haven’t found one yet.” In fact, some researchers suspect that if there is a turn-off pheromone, as Sobel’s team says, there’s likely to be a turn-on pheromone.

In one 2005 study, gay men given anonymous samples of sweat preferred the scent of gay men, and heterosexual men fancied the scent of women. One’s nose can also help identify a genetically compatible mate. Researchers asked women to rate the odors of T-shirts worn by different men. Women preferred men whose DNA was different enough from their own that it would increase the likelihood of producing a child with a robust immune system.

Newborns preferentially scoot toward the scent of breasts. And adults can often tell by smell whether the person who produced perspiration was anxious or not.

The search for human pheromones has been hampered by two obstacles. First, “the effects we see are not dramatic,” Sobel says. Instead, Preti says, our responses to odors are “confounded by other sensory inputs like sight and sound, past experiences, learning, context—and not to mention laws.”

Second, nobody has been able to find the exact chemicals that cue people about anxiety, mating compatibility or breast milk. This may be because researchers have traditionally analyzed aromatics from armpits. The fact is, any bodily fluid could potentially harbor pheromones, which is why Sobel studied tears of sadness. And who knows what signals are lurking in tears of joy?


How to Keep Algae from Growing in Bird Bath

This article was co-authored by Roger J. Lederer, Ph.D.. Dr. Roger Lederer is an Ornithologist and the founder of Ornithology.com, an informative website about wild birds. Dr. Lederer has spent over 40 years teaching, studying, and writing about birds. He has traveled to over 100 countries to study birds. Dr. Lederer is an Emeritus Professor of Biological Sciences at California State University, Chico, and has been a Department Chair of Biological Sciences and Dean of the College of Natural Sciences. He has written more than 30 research papers and 10 books on birds and a textbook entitled “Ecology and Field Biology.” Dr. Lederer has consulted the BBC, National Geographic, National Public Radio, ABC News, the Guinness Book of World Records, and numerous other organizations and publications.

There are 15 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page.

wikiHow marks an article as reader-approved once it receives enough positive feedback. This article received 12 testimonials and 100% of readers who voted found it helpful, earning it our reader-approved status.

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The existence of algae in a birdbath is common, especially since algae spores can be transferred or deposited into your birdbath by the wind, bird feet, or even from nearby trees. To prevent algae from growing in your birdbath, remove algae when you see it. Clean your bird bath regularly. You should also keep the bird bath in the shade and change the water daily.


14 Fun Facts About Dragonflies

Flying insects are usually annoying. Mosquitoes bite you, leaving itchy red welts. Bees and wasps sting. Flies are just disgusting. But there’s something magical about dragonflies.

1 ) Dragonflies were some of the first winged insects to evolve, some 300 million years ago. Modern dragonflies have wingspans of only two to five inches, but fossil dragonflies have been found with wingspans of up to two feet.

2 ) Some scientists theorize that high oxygen levels during the Paleozoic era allowed dragonflies to grow to monster size.

3 ) There are more than 5,000 known species of dragonflies, all of which (along with damselflies) belong to the order Odonata, which means “toothed one” in Greek and refers to the dragonfly’s serrated teeth.

4 ) In their larval stage, which can last up to two years, dragonflies are aquatic and eat just about anything—tadpoles, mosquitoes, fish, other insect larvae and even each other.

5 ) At the end of its larval stage, the dragonfly crawls out of the water, then its exoskeleton cracks open and releases the insect’s abdomen, which had been packed in like a telescope. Its four wings come out, and they dry and harden over the next several hours to days.

6 ) Dragonflies are expert fliers. They can fly straight up and down, hover like a helicopter and even mate mid-air. If they can’t fly, they’ll starve because they only eat prey they catch while flying.

7 ) Dragonflies catch their insect prey by grabbing it with their feet. They’re so efficient in their hunting that, in one Harvard University study, the dragonflies caught 90 to 95 percent of the prey released into their enclosure.

8 ) The flight of the dragonfly is so special that it has inspired engineers who dream of making robots that fly like dragonflies.

9 ) Some adult dragonflies live for only a few weeks while others live up to a year.

10 ) Nearly all of the dragonfly’s head is eye, so they have incredible vision that encompasses almost every angle except right behind them.

11 ) Dragonflies, which eat insects as adults, are a great control on the mosquito population. A single dragonfly can eat 30 to hundreds of mosquitoes per day.

12 ) Hundreds of dragonflies of different species will gather in swarms, either for feeding or migration. Little is known about this behavior, but the Dragonfly Swarm Project is collecting reports on swarms to better understand the behavior. (Report a swarm here.)

13 ) Scientists have tracked migratory dragonflies by attaching tiny transmitters to wings with a combination of eyelash adhesive and superglue. They found that green darners from New Jersey traveled only every third day and an average of 7.5 miles per day (though one dragonfly traveled 100 miles in a single day).

14 ) A dragonfly called the globe skinner has the longest migration of any insect󈟛,000 miles back and forth across the Indian Ocean.


How to Attract Yellow Finches

This article was co-authored by Roger J. Lederer, Ph.D.. Dr. Roger Lederer is an Ornithologist and the founder of Ornithology.com, an informative website about wild birds. Dr. Lederer has spent over 40 years teaching, studying, and writing about birds. He has traveled to over 100 countries to study birds. Dr. Lederer is an Emeritus Professor of Biological Sciences at California State University, Chico, and has been a Department Chair of Biological Sciences and Dean of the College of Natural Sciences. He has written more than 30 research papers and 10 books on birds and a textbook entitled “Ecology and Field Biology.” Dr. Lederer has consulted the BBC, National Geographic, National Public Radio, ABC News, the Guinness Book of World Records, and numerous other organizations and publications.

There are 18 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page.

wikiHow marks an article as reader-approved once it receives enough positive feedback. In this case, 100% of readers who voted found the article helpful, earning it our reader-approved status.

This article has been viewed 130,184 times.

Yellow finches, also known as American goldfinches, are often sought after by birdwatchers because of their bright plumage. These small birds are native to North America and appear most often in the winter as they migrate south. By creating an attractive habitat filled with plants and feed preferred by yellow finches, you stand a greater chance of bringing these colorful little joys to your backyard and garden.


How an Emulsifier Works

Since essential oils are hydrophobic and cannot blend in water, we will need an emulsifying agent to glue them together and form an emulsion.

An emulsion is nothing more than a smooth mixture of two liquid substances that are normally not mixable. A popular example of an emulsion is mayonnaise, which is an emulsion of oil, lemon juice and egg yolk among others.

An emulsifying agent is a substance that can bind together two unmixable liquids such as oil and water.

The molecular structure of emulsifiers has 2 portion: one that is attracted to oils while another portion is attracted to water. The portion attracted to oils binds the essential oil, while the portion attracted to water, will bind the water substance. This creates a smooth, evenly distributed substance of both essential oils and water being evenly distributed in the matter.

Simply speaking, the molecules in an emulsifying agent tend to stick between the oil molecules and the water molecules, effectively gluing them both together.


Provide the Right Housing

You don't need a fancy insect terrarium to raise a caterpillar. Just about any container large enough to accommodate the caterpillar and its food plant will do the job. A gallon-size jar or old fish tank will provide a luxurious, easy-to-clean home. Once you have a suitable container, you'll need to add a few things to give the place a "homey" feel.

Since some caterpillars burrow in the soil to pupate, it's a good idea to line the bottom of your container with an inch of slightly moist sand or soil. The soil shouldn't be too wet—you don't want to end up with condensation on the sides of your jar. Other caterpillars hang from twigs or other surfaces to pupate. For them, add a stick or two, secured in the soil and leaning against the side. This also gives the caterpillar a way to climb back onto its food plant should it fall off.

To keep the caterpillar's food plant fresh, place the stems in a small jar of water. Fill any space between the stems and the lip of the jar with wadded paper towels or cotton balls to prevent your caterpillar from falling into the water and drowning. Put the jar with the food plant into the caterpillar jar.

When the butterfly or moth emerges, it will need a place to cling while it unfurls its wings and dries them. Once the caterpillar pupates, you can tape a paper towel to the wall of the jar or aquarium to give the adult a place to cling. Place the tape at the top and allow the paper towel to hang freely to the bottom. Sticks also work well for giving the butterfly or moth a place to hang.

You don't need to provide water caterpillars get their moisture from the plants they consume. Cover the jar opening with a fine mesh screen or cheesecloth and secure it with a rubber band.


Long before Santa charioted his flying steeds across our mythical skies, it was the female reindeer who drew the sleigh of the sun goddess at Winter Solstice. It was when we “Christianized” the pagan traditions of winter, that the white-bearded man i.e. “Father Christmas” was born.

Today it is her beloved image that adorns Christmas cards and Yule decorations – not Rudolph. Because unlike the male reindeer who sheds his antlers in winter, it is the doe who retains her antlers. And it is she who leads the herds in winter.

So this season, when we gather by the fire to tell children bedtime stories of Santa and his flying reindeer – why not tell the story of the ancient Deer Mother of old? It was she who once flew through winter’s longest darkest night with the life-giving light of the sun in her horns.

Ever since the early Neolithic, when the earth was much colder and reindeer more widespread, the female reindeer was venerated by northern people. She was the “life-giving mother”, the leader of the herds upon which they depended for survival, and they followed the reindeer migrations for milk, food, clothing and shelter.

And from the British Isles, Scandinavia, Russia, Siberia, across the land bridge of the Bering Strait, she was a revered spiritual figure associated with fertility, motherhood, regeneration and the rebirth of the sun (the theme of winter solstice).

Top right to left: Siberian Deer Tattoo 2nd century BCE., Shamanic Headdress found in Düsseldorf Burial, Scythian Deer figurine, Mesolithic Burial of two women in France, Scythian Rod, Iron Age

Her antlers adorned shrines and altars, were buried in ceremonial graves and were worn as shamanic headdresses. Her image was etched in standing stones, woven into ceremonial cloth and clothing, cast in jewellery, painted on drums, and tattooed onto skin.

Deer Stones Image Source Wikipedia. Upper Left Image: Pen and Ink Sketch of Mongolian Deer Stone by Penny Sinclair, Scottish Narratives.

The reindeer was often shown leaping or flying through the air with neck outstretched and legs flung out fore and aft. Her antlers were frequently depicted as the tree of life, carrying birds, the sun, moon and stars. And across the northern world, it was the Deer Mother who took flight from the dark of the old year to bring light and life to the new.

Sami Reindeer Woman, source Artic Photo

For the Sami, the indigenous people of the Nordic countries, Beaivi is the name for the Sun Goddess associated with motherhood, the fertility of plants and the reindeer. At Winter Solstice, warm butter (a symbol of the sun) was smeared on doorposts as a sacrifice to Beaivi so that she could gain strength and fly higher and higher into the sky. Beaivi was often shown accompanied by her daughter in an enclosure of reindeer antlers and together they returned green and fertility to the land.

Sami Reindeer Woman, source Artic Photo

Many winter goddesses in northern legends were associated with the solstice. They took to the skies led by a bevvy of flying animals. One tells of the return of Saule, the Lithuanian and Latvian goddess of the sun. She flew across the heavens in a sleigh pulled by horned reindeer and threw pebbles of amber (symbolizing the sun) into chimneys.

Mary B. Kelly’s book Goddess Embroideries Of Eastern Europe explores images of the horned deer mother in the sacred textiles of women. The image of the mother goddess Rohanitsa is often shown with antlers and gives birth to deer as well as children. For her feast day in late December (most likely solstice) white iced cookies shaped like deer were given as presents or good luck tokens, and red and white embroidery depicting her image were displayed.

Ceremonial Embroidery of Rohanitsa, Image Source from Mary B. Kelly

Russian Kozuli are similar cookies baked during winter celebrations, Christmas and New Year. Often called Roe these cookies were originally small three-dimensional figures, most often shaped in the form of reindeer (and birds, fish, bears, flowers, stars and trees – images associated the ancient goddesses of the land). These ma gical talismans brought wealth, prosperity, good fortune to the family and were also gifted to relatives, friends, neighbours, even the animals and pets! T hey were displayed in the home as charms to protect from evil spirits and were used for Christmas divination by girls and young men on Epiphany evenings.

Kozuli Varieties, Russian Craft Guide, CC BY-SA 3.0 Note the horned goddess symbols!

T oday Kozuli are often defined as meaning “she-goat” in Russian, but in the northern White Sea region where they originate, the word kozulya means “snake” or “curl”. This is believed to refer to the spiral of life and the curling antlers of the reindeer whose twisted horns had different meanings friendship, love, health and longevity. Sometimes the horns carry apples, birds, or depictions of the winged sun. They were traditionally coloured white and pink, obtained with the juice of lingonberries or cranberries.

Image sources: https://ru.russianarts.online/3282-kozuli/ https://irina-sinukova.wixsite.com/kozuli/blank-d149n https://www.livemaster.ru/kozuli/profile

This year I finally my own version of these traditional cookies, a simple shortbread made with dried cranberry powder. (recipe is up on Gather Victoria Patreon). They aren’t nearly so fancy, who has the time – or the skill? But they were made in the spirit intended and it did take a little work making the cranberry powder! They came out gloriously red and the icing sugar, of course, is the white.

These colours are thought to descend from Siberian legends, in which the reindeer took flight each winter after ingesting the hallucinogenic Amanita Muscaria mushroom, the archetypal red toadstool with white spots. Shamans would join them on a vision quest, by taking the mushrooms themselves. Climbing the tree of life in her horns, they would take flight like a bird into the upper realms. Other folktales tell how shamans, dressed in red suits with white spots, would collect the mushrooms and then deliver them through chimneys as gifts on the winter solstice. Talk about a wild night.

While many historical explorations of the pagan origins of Christmas observe the link between Santa’s garb and the red and white amanita mushroom ingesting shaman, few mention that it was the female shamans who originally wore red and white costumes trimmed with fur, horned headdresses or felt red hats! The ceremonial clothing worn by medicine women healers of Siberia and Lapland, was green and white with a red peaked hat, curled toed boots, reindeer mittens, fur lining and trim. Sound familiar?

Horned Kichko, ancient Russian shaman females sacred hat.

Considering that most of the shamans in this region were originally women, it is likely that their traditional wear is the true source for Santa’s costume. And it is also very likely that they were the first to take shamanic flight with the reindeer on winter’s darkest night.

And while these women are largely forgotten today, the Deer Mother still lives in our Christmas cards, seasonal decorations and tales of Santa’s flying reindeer. And while we may not recognize her, I believe some deep, old part of ourselves still remembers the original “Mother Christmas” who brought light and new life to the world.

So this solstice, take a moment to remember the forgotten winter goddesses of old and their magical reindeer. Look out from your warm cosy home into the cold of the darkening eve. And on the sacred night when the sun is reborn, look for the Deer Mother flying across starry skies, carrying the tree of life in her horns.

POSTSCRIPT

This postscript is in response to the many comments and requests I’ve received for the sources of the above post. Many have never heard of the Deer Mother or her female shaman – which is no surprise. Today the internet is awash with articles examining the pagan origins of Christmas but what is consistently overlooked is the idea that there may have been a feminine source for yule traditions.

For example, a plethora of “alternative” articles observe the link between Santa’s red and white garb and the Siberian shaman, and consistently refer to this shaman as “him”. Little mention is made that this ceremonial clothing was worn by the earliest shamans in the northern regions who were -and still are – female. In fact, the leader of the Mongolian Reindeer People, according to this source, is a 96-year-old shaman known as Tsuyan.

And when it comes to the deer, well there is much talk of the stag, but little mention of what was once an important spiritual figure to our northern ancestors – the Deer Mother. Much historical scholarship has assumed that many horned images found in archaic relics, ritual objects and artwork were male. But considering the evidence for a reindeer mother goddess cult dating from the prehistoric, many scholars now suggest that some of these images may be in fact, female reindeer.

That early female shaman wore horned headdresses and antlers is also well documented. In Miranda Green’s book Symbol and Image in Celtic Religious Art she states, “animal symbolism associated with goddesses reaches its apogee with horned female images, usually adorned with antlers.”

Lead Plaque of Horned God (or Goddess?) found in Chesters, Northumberland. Miranda Green.

Green makes the point that while the antlered god Cernunnos is well known in eastern Gaul (and is revered in many pagan circles today) there were also feminine counterparts found in at many sites such as Clermont-Ferrand (Puy de Dome) and at Besancon (Doubs).

Esther Jacobson compiled the deer iconography of the early nomads of South Siberia and northern Central Asia. Her book The Deer Goddess Of Ancient Siberia: A Study In The Ecology Of Belief traces the image of the deer from rock carvings, paintings, and monolithic stelae from the Neolithic period down through the early Iron Age. And her study demonstrates that this deer goddess “religion “revolved around female “wise woman” and the Deer Mother herself.

Reindeer Stones or Stele. Image source Wikipedia.

The deer goddess was known across northern Europe. From The Deer-Cult and the Deer-Goddess Cult of the Ancient Caledonians by J.G. McKay “There are an immense number of traditions, references, notices of customs, and various minor matters, which show conclusively that there formerly existed in the Highlands of Scotland two cults, probably pre-Celtic, a deer-cult and a deer-goddess cult. The latter cult was administered by women only…”

Antlered female shaman (believed to be Nishan from NE Asia)

The book The Golden Deer of Eurasia published by the Metropolitan Museum of Art is a wonderful visual exploration of the sacred significance of the deer and reindeer in the shamanic traditions – which “was understood as essentially female” and associated with the tree of life, fertility, motherhood birth and the rebirth of the sun (the theme of the winter solstice!)

According to this lovely article “Reindeer and the Sun are very common association in Siberian shamanism. Tattoos on buried shaman women also contain deer tattoos, featuring antlers embellished with small birds’ heads, and since the goddess cultures of the female shaman is most associated with deer, serpent and birds, it is right that these deer stones were the sacred ritual grounds of women. This reindeer-sun-bird imagery can symbolize the female shaman’s soul transformation from human to deer, from earth of the middle world to higher gates of the middle world and even the lower world.”

Mesolithic female shaman of Bad Dürrenberg, 7000-6500 bce, with reconstructed regalia from animal bones, horns, teeth, and shells. From a wonderful color-illustrated pdf of “Archaeological Finds from Germany”

This fascinating article describes the ancient traditional clothing worn by “Medicine Women Healers” in Siberia and what once known as Lapland. “The red peaked, felted hats and curled-toe boots and warm mittens of reindeer-hide complete, what I believe to be, the feminine origins of perhaps the first of a very long line of Santa Claus replications. Their long lineage of connection with the induction of spiritual journeys through the drum, their relationship of healing with “Reindeer-Magic” and their ability to create potions and salves which could incite ecstatic visions or “Shamanic Journeys,” give us a deeper look at the Solstice and contemporary Christmas symbol. These priestesses-of-the-antlered-ones who flew through the night to gather blessings and healing and then distributed these gifts to their tribe members must surely be considered as proto-typical Fore-Mothers of Santa.”

So based on these sources (and I could go on!) it seems quite certain that there once an ancient deer mother goddess associated with the sun at Winter Solstice. It also seems likely that female shamans took to shamanic flight with the Deer Mother on this sacred night.

Today some of our most cherished Christmas images features antlered “stags”. Why does this image still speak so strongly to us? Could it be that they evoke an ancient memory? Are we remembering the long-forgotten mother of the Winter Solstice? I like to think so.


Thrips vs. Aphids

Some of the plant damage caused by aphids is quite similar to that of thrips. Both insects can cause deformities in leaves, and the residue left on leaves by both insects can encourage the growth of black mold. However, under magnification, aphids will appear as distinctly oval-shaped, compared to the long, narrow profile of thrips. Thrips often leave white or silver patches on leaves, and there will usually be small dark spots of excrement, signs that are not present in aphid damage. Aphids are more likely to leave a noticeably sticky residue on leaves, known as honeydew, which often draws ants (a plant teeming with ants is likely to also have aphids). Thrips normally feed on new leaf growth, while aphids may attack stem and other plant parts, as well as leaves.

Of course, it is entirely possible that a plant may experience both thrips and aphids simultaneously. Fortunately, many of the solutions for thrips also work to control aphids.


Watch the video: Συνταγή Ζαχαροζύμαρο (January 2022).