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Could someone please identify this species?


I have come across these insects a lot more lately, as far as I can tell, they can sustain a hover state in flight. I'm actually quite interested to know what these are, seeing they look like a cross between a bumblebee and a common housefly…


Looks very similar to Eupeodes corollae (Syrphidae). But only a specialist in the group will tell you if its the same species, genus or family. And not with that low-resolution photograph (sometimes they need to take the genitals off for proper identification).


Can you please help identify the species these teeth came from?

Hi there! So it took me a bit of digging to find the ID for the tooth on the left but it was so worth it, pretty cool find IMO, anyways:

I believe the tooth on the right to be from a Tiger Shark, if you take a look here it shows the typical dentition of the Tiger Shark of which yours is a near perfect example, congrats! Also due to the very white coloration it is likely from a very recent shark, again cool!

Anyways for the tooth on the left it actually isn't a tooth! I believe it to be a plate from a Batoidea, ie. a ray. Unfortunately as you can see here it can be extremely hard to narrow down to species as it is pretty similar across the board. I am trying to narrow it down cause this is fun, so I will report back with more findings is possible, as of now I am leaning towards an Eagle Ray due to the similarity between your picture and this one due to the curvature and how similar it looks, however the seperation between the points isn't the same so I'm hesitant to make an ID as of yet without more research. I will let you know if I find anything more, however I can say it is a Batoidea plate which again is recent due to the coloration.

TLDR: Tooth right is from a Tiger Shark, tooth on left is not a tooth but a dental play from a Batoidea, ie. a ray.

Will edit in an hour or so with more, hopeful a more detailed ID on the ray, to the internet! Or maybe someone else will know, good luck!

EDIT Ok so I managed to narrow it down to Torpediniformes or electric rays, and Myliobatiformes. However I am hesitant to ID to any further level so keep in mind that what follows is speculation. Due to the similarity between your picture and this one I'm going to say it's likely from an Eagle Ray now as this is quite a large group I've narrowed it down somewhat. Please again keep in mind that this is a very rough estimate as I cannot include many species in this as I could not find any distribution data for them. SO using this assumption I sorted through the species to find those that had distributions including the area you found it in (which again is also might not be the case as the plate may have been brought there by currents). Anyways here is the list of likely suspects:


FlytrapCare Carnivorous Plant Forums

Hi,
I thought I owned a pinguicula moranensis but now looking at this species one belonging to my cousin I can't identify which one is it.
The one with the green thing I believe is the moranensis, the other one I don't know.
Thanks

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Dredd93

Re: Can someone please help me identify this pinguicula spec �

Hey Dredd93, these are definitely Mexican Pinguicula and are reminiscent of P. moranensis or a hybrid with those genes. Unfortunately for most Mexican pings we won't be able to identify it properly without a photograph of a flower, which I understand can be a bit frustrating! Some species in this group have such similar flowers that it can be difficult to tell them apart anyway, but if you can get a photo of a flower as and when they produce them, that'll help a lot to narrow down what it could be. I'm sorry I can't be of more help with that at the moment.

I also apologise for not seeing this sooner, it's been a manic week.

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Re: Can someone please help me identify this pinguicula spec �

Ok here is the flower of the one in the black pot, the bigger pot:
I really apreciate that you answered to my post,

I'm also sorry I couldn't post a picture of the flower as I said in the other post I broke it by trying to pollinate it.
Thanks a lot!!

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Dredd93

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Dredd93

Re: Can someone please help me identify this pinguicula spec �

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Re: Can someone please help me identify this pinguicula spec �

Yes there's been no grow during 3 weeks. Here is a photo:

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Dredd93

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Dredd93

Re: Can someone please help me identify this pinguicula spec �

No worries Dredd, I wouldn't ask for your exact location, just a general idea of where abouts in the world you are as climate will vary -- CST is unfortunately rather general, but we can work with it as I do not want for you to be at all uncomfortable. It helps that the plants are growing indoors, and thank you also for the temperature info, that is really helpful!

Generally, things sound good to me. Do you allow the plants to dry out a bit between watering? That helps to prevent rot though, to be fair, I don't think that's the issue. And while I'm not great with artificial lighting, from what I gather, the lighting you're using should be fine, especially as you are seeing colourful tints around the edges of the leaves.

How long has the plant been in this state? I'm not sure, off the top of my head, what could be causing it, but from what I've read so far I'm not overly concerned. What soil is it in and has it ever been repotted?

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Re: Can someone please help me identify this pinguicula spec �

Grey wrote: No worries Dredd, I wouldn't ask for your exact location, just a general idea of where abouts in the world you are as climate will vary -- CST is unfortunately rather general, but we can work with it as I do not want for you to be at all uncomfortable. It helps that the plants are growing indoors, and thank you also for the temperature info, that is really helpful!

Generally, things sound good to me. Do you allow the plants to dry out a bit between watering? That helps to prevent rot though, to be fair, I don't think that's the issue. And while I'm not great with artificial lighting, from what I gather, the lighting you're using should be fine, especially as you are seeing colourful tints around the edges of the leaves.

How long has the plant been in this state? I'm not sure, off the top of my head, what could be causing it, but from what I've read so far I'm not overly concerned. What soil is it in and has it ever been repotted?

Thanks Grey,
The ping has been under this conditions for about a month now, I haven't repotted this one and I think it's on a peat:perlite:weird volcanic rock mix (50:30:20), I said weird because it's kind of red-ish I don't think it's bad since I heard it has been picked up from the surroundings of a volcano where it is naturally found here (unless it's just a piece of brick it's hard to tell)
Yes I let the soil dry, actually the days I water it's because the top seems to be compacted a little bit and of course dried.

Identification

Many officers have also refused to uncover their badge numbers, deterring identification .

Oportun allows borrowers to use an individual tax identification number in lieu of a Social Security number when they apply for loans, making them easily accessible to undocumented immigrants.

The notices should include a “claim identification number” and a “confirmation code,” which can be entered here.

The FBI and police scan these masses of photos through computer programs that digitize them for identification .

It must be made explicit that identification between devices is anonymized and securely stored in encrypted form to prevent violation of privacy.

Her heartbroken and horrified brother, Sam Jones, made the identification .

The remains have also been sent to the chief medical examiner in Richmond for official forensic identification .

The jogger had no memory of the attack, and none of the other victims could make an identification of the Five.

At about 10 p.m., a horde of Hungarian police officers raided the bar, demanding that everybody show their identification .

To gauge his level of truthfulness, I asked, “So, you wouldn't mind if I included your donor identification number in the story?”

“It is a perfect identification ,” murmured Mr. Arden, with his eyes still riveted on the plaster faces.

This will show all bacteria except the tubercle bacillus, and often no other stain is necessary for their identification .

The presence of such a diplococcus in meningeal exudates is, however, sufficient for its identification .

Identification was established by a wallet containing papers of the deceased.

The plan has also been utilized a great deal in recent years for the identification of enlisted men in the army and navy.


Discussion

Understanding the mechanisms of deep learning classifications of camera-trap images can help ecologists determine the possible reasons for misclassification and develop intuitions about deep learning, which is necessary for method refinement and further implementation. For example, Fig. 2 in Appendix 3 indicates that reedbuck is the least accurately classified species by the CNN. The confusion matrix 28 of testing results (Table 3, Appendix 3) reveals that many reedbuck images are classified as oribi (8%), impala (12%), and bushbuck (12%). Figure 3 shows that reedbuck is close to oribi, impala, and bushbuck in the feature vector space learned by the CNN, which partly explains misclassification. Further, by examining the localized visual features of the misclassified images, we can gain a clearer sense of the reasons for misclassification. Figure 6 depicts examples of misclassified reedbuck images. Although the CNN can locate the animals in most of the images, it is challenging for the CNN to classify the images correctly when the distinct features of the species are obscured or multiple species are in the same scenes.

Examples of reedbuck images that are misclassified as oribi, impala, and bushbuck, with corresponding localized discriminative visual features. Although the CNN can locate animals in most images, it is hard for the machine to find distinct features from: (1) images with animals that are far away in the scene (2) over-exposed images (3) images that capture only parts of the animal and (4) images with multiple animal species. In many of these cases, the other species are indeed present in the scenes, and are often in the foreground. This problem is an artifact of the current labeling process and remains to be resolved in the future. For example, the animal in the leftmost image on the second row that is classified as impala is an impala. The CNN correctly classifies this image based on the animal. However, this image was also labeled as reedbuck because the extremely small black spots far in the background are reedbuck. When two species appear in the same scene, the same image is saved twice in the dataset with different labels corresponding to different species in the scene. This labeling protocol can confuse the CNN and remains a problem that must to be resolved in the future.


Contents

Etymology and definitions Edit

In 1917, Richard Goldschmidt created the term "intersexuality" to refer to a variety of physical sex ambiguities. [13] However, it wasn’t until Anne Fausto Sterling published an article in 1993 that the term reached popularity. [37]

According to the UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights:

Intersex people are born with sex characteristics (including genitals, gonads and chromosome patterns) that do not fit typical binary notions of male or female bodies. Intersex is an umbrella term used to describe a wide range of natural bodily variations. In some cases, intersex traits are visible at birth while in others, they are not apparent until puberty. Some chromosomal intersex variations may not be physically apparent at all. [2]

According to World Health Organization: Intersex is defined as a congenital anomaly of the reproductive and sexual system.

Attitudes towards the term Edit

Some intersex organizations reference "intersex people" and "intersex variations or traits" [38] while others use more medicalized language such as "people with intersex conditions", [39] or people "with intersex conditions or DSDs (differences of sex development)" and "children born with variations of sex anatomy". [40] In May 2016, interACT published a statement recognizing "increasing general understanding and acceptance of the term 'intersex'". [41]

Australian sociological research on 272 "people born with atypical sex characteristics", published in 2016, found that 60% of respondents used the term "intersex" to self-describe their sex characteristics, including people identifying themselves as intersex, describing themselves as having an intersex variation or, in smaller numbers, having an intersex condition. Respondents also commonly used diagnostic labels and referred to their sex chromosomes, with word choices depending on audience. [10] [42]

Research on 202 respondents by the Lurie Children's Hospital, Chicago, and the AIS-DSD Support Group (now known as InterConnect Support Group) [43] published in 2017 found that 80% of Support Group respondents "strongly liked, liked or felt neutral about intersex" as a term, while caregivers were less supportive. [44] The hospital reported that "disorders of sex development" may negatively affect care. [45]

Another study by a group of children's hospitals in the United States found that 53% of 133 parent and adolescent participants recruited at five clinics did not like the term intersex. [46] Participants who were members of support groups were more likely to dislike the term. [46] A "dsd-LIFE" study in 2020 found that around 43% of 179 participants thought the term "intersex" was bad, 20% felt neutral about the term, while the rest thought the term was good. [47]

The term 'hermaphrodite' Edit

Historically, the term hermaphrodite was used in law to refer to people whose sex was in doubt. The 12th-century Decretum Gratiani states that "Whether an hermaphrodite may witness a testament, depends on which sex prevails" ("Hermafroditus an ad testamentum adhiberi possit, qualitas sexus incalescentis ostendit."). [48] [49] Similarly, the 17th-century English jurist and judge Edward Coke (Lord Coke), wrote in his Institutes of the Lawes of England on laws of succession stating, "Every heire is either a male, a female, or an hermaphrodite, that is both male and female. And an hermaphrodite (which is also called Androgynus) shall be heire, either as male or female, according to that kind of sexe which doth prevaile." [50] [51]

During the Victorian era, medical authors attempted to ascertain whether or not humans could be hermaphrodites, adopting a precise biological definition for the term, [52] and making distinctions between "male pseudohermaphrodite", "female pseudohermaphrodite" and especially "true hermaphrodite". [53] These terms, which reflected histology (microscopic appearance) of the gonads, are no longer used. [54] [55] [56] Until the mid-20th century, "hermaphrodite" was used synonymously with "intersex". [57] Medical terminology shifted in the early 21st century, not only due to concerns about language, but also a shift to understandings based on genetics.

The Intersex Society of North America has stated that hermaphrodites should not be confused with intersex people and that using "hermaphrodite" to refer to intersex individuals is considered to be stigmatizing and misleading. [58]

Disorders of sex development Edit

"Disorders of sex development" (DSD) is a contested term, [20] [21] defined to include congenital conditions in which development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomical sex is atypical. Members of the Lawson Wilkins Pediatric Endocrine Society and the European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology adopted this term in their "Consensus statement on management of intersex disorders". [19] [59] While it adopted the term, to open "many more doors", the now defunct Intersex Society of North America itself remarked that intersex is not a disorder. [60] Other intersex people, activists, supporters, and academics have contested the adoption of the terminology and its implied status as a "disorder", seeing this as offensive to intersex individuals who do not feel that there is something wrong with them, regard the DSD consensus paper as reinforcing the normativity of early surgical interventions, and criticize the treatment protocols associated with the new taxonomy. [61]

Sociological research in Australia on 272 "people born with atypical sex characteristics," published in 2016, found that 3% of respondents used the term "disorders of sex development" or "DSD" to define their sex characteristics, while 21% use the term when accessing medical services. In contrast, 60% used the term "intersex" in some form to self-describe their sex characteristics. [42] U.S. research by the Lurie Children's Hospital, Chicago, and the AIS-DSD Support Group (now InterConnect Support Group) published in 2017 found that "disorders of sex development" terminology may negatively affect care, give offense, and result in lower attendance at medical clinics. [45] [44]

Alternatives to categorizing intersex conditions as "disorders" have been suggested, including "variations of sex development". [22] Tony Briffa at Intersex Human Rights Australia questions a disease/disability approach, argues for deferral of intervention unless medically necessary, when fully informed consent of the individual involved is possible, and self-determination of sex/gender orientation and identity. [62] In May 2016, interACT also published a statement opposing pathologizing language to describe people born with intersex traits, recognizing "increasing general understanding and acceptance of the term 'intersex'". [41]

In May 2019, more than 50 intersex-led organizations signed a multilingual joint statement condemning the introduction of "disorders of sex development" language into the International Classification of Diseases, stating that this causes "harm" and facilitates human rights violations, calling on the World Health Organization to publish clear policy to ensure that intersex medical interventions are "fully compatible with human rights norms". [63] [64] [65] [66] [67]

Endosex Edit

Endosex is an antonym to the term intersex, first coined by Heike Bödeker in 1999. [68] According to the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, "some advocates and providers are increasingly using the term". [69]

Estimates of the number of people who are intersex vary, depending on which conditions are counted as intersex. [4] The now-defunct Intersex Society of North America stated that:

If you ask experts at medical centers how often a child is born so noticeably atypical in terms of genitalia that a specialist in sex differentiation is called in, the number comes out to about 1 in 1500 to 1 in 2000 births [0.07–0.05%]. But a lot more people than that are born with subtler forms of sex anatomy variations, some of which won't show up until later in life. [70]

Anne Fausto-Sterling and her co-authors said in two articles in 2000 that 1.7 percent of human births (1 in 60) might be intersex, including variations that may not become apparent until, for example, puberty, or until attempting to conceive. [71] [72] Their publications have been widely quoted by intersex activists. [73] [74] [75]

Of the 1.7%, 1.5 percentage points (88% of those considered intersex in this figure) consist of individuals with late onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia (LOCAH). In response to Fausto-Sterling, Leonard Sax estimated that the prevalence of intersex was about 0.018% of the world's population. [4] A 2018 review reported that the number of births with ambiguous genitals is in the range of 0.02% to 0.05%. [7] Sax stated that "[f]rom a clinician's perspective, however, LOCAH is not an intersex condition." [4] He also states that Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY), Turner syndrome (45,X), the chromosomal variants of 47,XYY and 47,XXX, and vaginal agenesis are not intersex conditions. [4] The impact of milder 'non classic' CAH varies across individuals, may be asymptomatic in some cases or a cause of infertility, and has not been extensively studied. [76]

The figure of 1.7% is still maintained by Intersex Human Rights Australia "despite its flaws", stating both that the estimate "encapsulates the entire population of people who are stigmatized – or risk stigmatization – due to innate sex characteristics," and that Sax's definitions exclude individuals who experience such stigma and who have helped to establish the intersex movement. [77]

The following summarizes prevalences of traits that have been called intersex:

Prevalences of various conditions that have been called intersex
Intersex condition Sex specificity Approximate prevalence
Late onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia (nonclassical forms) Female (males are generally asymptomatic) [78] One in 50–1000 births (0.1–0.2% up to 1–2% depending on population) [79]
Hypospadias Male One in 200–10,000 male births (0.01%–0.5%), prevalence estimates vary considerably [80]
Klinefelter syndrome Male One in 500–1,000 male births (0.1–0.2%) [81]
47, XXX genotype Female One in 1,000 female births (0.10%) [82]
Turner syndrome Female One in 2,500 female births (0.04%) [83]
Müllerian agenesis (of vagina, i.e., MRKH Syndrome) Female One in 4,500 female births (0.022%) [84]
Vaginal atresia/agenesis Female One in 5,000 female births (0.02%) [85]
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (classical forms) None (but virilization of female infants) [79] [76] One in 10,000–20,000 births (0.01–0.02%) [76]
45,X/46,XY chromosomal mosaicism Male One in 6666 births (0.015%) [86]
XYY genotype Male One in 7000 male births (0.0142%) [87]
XXYY genotype Male One in 18,000–40,000 male births (0.0025%–0.0055%) [88]
XX genotype (male) Male One in 20,000 male births (0.005%) [89]
Ovotesticular disorder of sex development None One in 20,000 births (0.005%) [90]
46, XY Complete gonadal dysgenesis Phenotypic female [91] One in 80,000 births (0.0013%) [92]
Androgen insensitivity syndrome (complete and partial phenotypes) Genetic male [93] One in 99,000 births (0.001%) [94]
Idiopathic (no discernable medical cause) None One in 110,000 births (0.0009%) [95]
Iatrogenic (caused by medical treatment, e.g., progestin administered to pregnant mother) None No estimate
5-alpha-reductase deficiency Male No estimate
Mixed gonadal dysgenesis None No estimate
Anorchia Male No estimate
Persistent Müllerian duct syndrome Male No estimate

Prevalences of specific conditions can vary across regions. In the Dominican Republic, 5-alpha-reductase deficiency is not uncommon in the town of Las Salinas, resulting in social acceptance of the intersex trait. [96] Men with the trait are called "güevedoces" (Spanish for "eggs at twelve"). 12 out of 13 families had one or more male family members that carried the gene. The overall incidence for the town was 1 in every 90 males were carriers, with other males either non-carriers or non-affected carriers. [97]

From early history, societies have been aware of intersex people. Some of the earliest evidence is found in mythology: the Greek historian Diodorus Siculus wrote of the mythological Hermaphroditus in the first century BC, who was "born with a physical body which is a combination of that of a man and that of a woman", and reputedly possessed supernatural properties. [98] Ardhanarishvara, an androgynous composite form of male deity Shiva and female deity Parvati, originated in Kushan culture as far back as the first century AD. [99] A statue depicting Ardhanarishvara is included in India's Meenakshi Temple this statue clearly shows both male and female bodily elements. [100]

Hippocrates (c. 460 – c. 370 BC Greek physician) and Galen (129 – c. 200/216 AD Roman physician, surgeon and philosopher) both viewed sex as a spectrum between men and women, with "many shades in between, including hermaphrodites, a perfect balance of male and female". [101] Pliny the Elder (AD 23/24–79) the Roman naturalist described "those who are born of both sexes, whom we call hermaphrodites, at one time androgyni" (from the Greek andr-, "man," and gyn-, "woman"). [102] Augustine (354 – 28 August 430 AD) the influential Catholic theologian wrote in The Literal Meaning of Genesis that humans were created in two sexes, despite "as happens in some births, in the case of what we call androgynes". [101]

In medieval and early modern European societies, Roman law, post-classical canon law, and later common law, referred to a person's sex as male, female or hermaphrodite, with legal rights as male or female depending on the characteristics that appeared most dominant. [103] The 12th century Decretum Gratiani states that "Whether an hermaphrodite may witness a testament, depends on which sex prevails". [104] [105] [106] The foundation of common law, the 17th Century Institutes of the Lawes of England described how a hermaphrodite could inherit "either as male or female, according to that kind of sexe which doth prevaile." [107] [51] Legal cases have been described in canon law and elsewhere over the centuries.

Some non-European societies have sex or gender systems that recognize more than the two categories of male/man and female/woman. Some of these cultures, for instance the South-Asian Hijra communities, may include intersex people in a third gender category. [108] [109] Although–according to Morgan Holmes–early Western anthropologists categorized such cultures "primitive," Holmes has argued that analyses of these cultures have been simplistic or romanticized and fail to take account of the ways that subjects of all categories are treated. [110]

During the Victorian era, medical authors introduced the terms "true hermaphrodite" for an individual who has both ovarian and testicular tissue, "male pseudo-hermaphrodite" for a person with testicular tissue, but either female or ambiguous sexual anatomy, and "female pseudo-hermaphrodite" for a person with ovarian tissue, but either male or ambiguous sexual anatomy. Some later shifts in terminology have reflected advances in genetics, while other shifts are suggested to be due to pejorative associations. [111]

The term "intersexuality" was coined by Richard Goldschmidt in 1917. [112] The first suggestion to replace the term 'hermaphrodite' with 'intersex' was made by Cawadias in the 1940s. [57]

Since the rise of modern medical science, some intersex people with ambiguous external genitalia have had their genitalia surgically modified to resemble either female or male genitals. Surgeons pinpointed intersex babies as a "social emergency" when born. [113] An 'optimal gender policy', initially developed by John Money, stated that early intervention helped avoid gender identity confusion, but this lacks evidence. [59] Early interventions have adverse consequences for psychological and physical health. [32] Since advances in surgery have made it possible for intersex conditions to be concealed, many people are not aware of how frequently intersex conditions arise in human beings or that they occur at all. [114]

Dialogue between what were once antagonistic groups of activists and clinicians has led to only slight changes in medical policies and how intersex patients and their families are treated in some locations. [115] In 2011, Christiane Völling became the first intersex person known to have successfully sued for damages in a case brought for non-consensual surgical intervention. [34] In April 2015, Malta became the first country to outlaw non-consensual medical interventions to modify sex anatomy, including that of intersex people. [35] Many civil society organizations and human rights institutions now call for an end to unnecessary "normalizing" interventions, including in the Malta declaration. [116] [1]

Human rights institutions are placing increasing scrutiny on harmful practices and issues of discrimination against intersex people. These issues have been addressed by a rapidly increasing number of international institutions including, in 2015, the Council of Europe, the United Nations Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights and the World Health Organization (WHO). These developments have been accompanied by International Intersex Forums and increased cooperation amongst civil society organizations. However, the implementation, codification, and enforcement of intersex human rights in national legal systems remains slow.

Physical integrity and bodily autonomy Edit

Stigmatization and discrimination from birth may include infanticide, abandonment, and the stigmatization of families. As noted in the "Intersex human rights" page, the birth of an intersex child was often viewed as a curse or a sign of a witch mother, especially in parts of Africa. [23] [24] Abandonments and infanticides have been reported in Uganda, [23] Kenya, [117] South Asia, [118] and China. [25]

Infants, children and adolescents also experience "normalising" interventions on intersex persons that are medically unnecessary and the pathologisation of variations in sex characteristics. In countries where the human rights of intersex people have been studied, medical interventions to modify the sex characteristics of intersex people have still taken place without the consent of the intersex person. [119] [120] Interventions have been described by human rights defenders as a violation of many rights, including (but not limited to) bodily integrity, non-discrimination, privacy, and experimentation. [121] These interventions have frequently been performed with the consent of the intersex person's parents, when the person is legally too young to consent. Such interventions have been criticized by the WHO, other UN bodies such as the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, and an increasing number of regional and national institutions due to their adverse consequences, including trauma, impact on sexual function and sensation, and violation of rights to physical and mental integrity. [1] The UN organizations decided that infant intervention should not be allowed, in favor of waiting for the child to mature enough to be a part of the decision-making – this allows for a decision to be made with total consent. [122] In April 2015, Malta became the first country to outlaw surgical intervention without consent. [35] [36] In the same year, the Council of Europe became the first institution to state that intersex people have the right not to undergo sex affirmation interventions. [35] [36] [73] [123] [124]

Anti-discrimination and equal treatment Edit

People born with intersex bodies are seen as different. Intersex infants, children, adolescents and adults "are often stigmatized and subjected to multiple human rights violations", including discrimination in education, healthcare, employment, sport, and public services. [2] [1] [125] Several countries have so far explicitly protected intersex people from discrimination, with landmarks including South Africa, [36] [126] Australia, [127] [128] and, most comprehensively, Malta. [129] [130] [131] [132] [133]

Remedies and claims for compensation Edit

Claims for compensation and remedies for human rights abuses include the 2011 case of Christiane Völling in Germany. [34] [134] A second case was adjudicated in Chile in 2012, involving a child and his parents. [135] [136] A further successful case in Germany, taken by Michaela Raab, was reported in 2015. [137] In the United States, the Minor Child (M.C. v Aaronson) lawsuit was "a medical malpractice case related to the informed consent for a surgery performed on the Crawford's adopted child (known as M.C.) at [Medical University of South Carolina] in April 2006". [138] The case was one of the first lawsuit of its kind to challenge "legal, ethical, and medical issues regarding genital-normalizing surgery" in minors, and was eventually settled out of court by the Medical University of South Carolina for $440,000 in 2017. [139]

Information and support Edit

Access to information, medical records, peer and other counselling and support. With the rise of modern medical science in Western societies, a secrecy-based model was also adopted, in the belief that this was necessary to ensure normal physical and psychosocial development. [31] [32] [140] [141] [142] [143]

Legal recognition Edit

The Asia Pacific Forum of National Human Rights Institutions states that legal recognition is firstly "about intersex people who have been issued a male or a female birth certificate being able to enjoy the same legal rights as other men and women." [33] In some regions, obtaining any form of birth certification may be an issue. A Kenyan court case in 2014 established the right of an intersex boy, "Baby A", to a birth certificate. [144]

Like all individuals, some intersex individuals may be raised as a certain sex (male or female) but then identify with another later in life, while most do not. [145] [9] [146] [147] Recognition of third sex or gender classifications occurs in several countries, [148] [149] [150] [151] However, it is controversial when it becomes assumed or coercive, as is the case with some German infants. [152] [153] Sociological research in Australia, a country with a third 'X' sex classification, shows that 19% of people born with atypical sex characteristics selected an "X" or "other" option, while 75% of survey respondents self-described as male or female (52% as women, 23% as men), and 6% as unsure. [10] [42]

Intersex conditions can be contrasted with transgender gender identities and the attached gender dysphoria a transgender person may feel, wherein their gender identity does not match their assigned sex. [154] [155] [156] However, some people are both intersex and transgender though intersex people by definition have variable sex characteristics that do not align with either typically male or female, this may be considered separate to an individual's assigned gender, the way they are raised and perceived, and their internal gender identity. [157] A 2012 clinical review paper found that between 8.5% and 20% of people with intersex variations experienced gender dysphoria. [146] In an analysis of the use of preimplantation genetic diagnosis to eliminate intersex traits, Behrmann and Ravitsky state: "Parental choice against intersex may . conceal biases against same-sex attractedness and gender nonconformity." [158]

The relationship of intersex people and communities to LGBTQ communities is complex, [159] but intersex people are often added to the LGBT acronym, resulting in the acronym LGBTI. Emi Koyama describes how inclusion of intersex in LGBTI can fail to address intersex-specific human rights issues, including creating false impressions "that intersex people's rights are protected" by laws protecting LGBT people, and failing to acknowledge that many intersex people are not LGBT. [160] Organisation Intersex International Australia states that some intersex individuals are homosexual, and some are heterosexual, but "LGBTI activism has fought for the rights of people who fall outside of expected binary sex and gender norms." [161] [162] Julius Kaggwa of SIPD Uganda has written that, while the gay community "offers us a place of relative safety, it is also oblivious to our specific needs". [163] Mauro Cabral has written that transgender people and organizations "need to stop approaching intersex issues as if they were trans issues", including use of intersex conditions and people as a means of explaining being transgender "we can collaborate a lot with the intersex movement by making it clear how wrong that approach is". [164]

Fiction, literature and media Edit

An intersex character is the narrator in Jeffrey Eugenides' Pulitzer Prize-winning novel Middlesex.

The memoir, Born Both: An Intersex Life (Hachette Books, 2017), by intersex author and activist Hida Viloria, received strong praise from The New York Times Book Review, The Washington Post, Rolling Stone, People Magazine, and Psychology Today, was one of School Library Journal's 2017 Top Ten Adult Books for Teens, and was a 2018 Lambda Literary Award nominee.

Television works about intersex and films about intersex are scarce. The Spanish-language film XXY won the Critics' Week grand prize at the 2007 Cannes Film Festival and the ACID/CCAS Support Award. [165] Faking It is notable for providing both the first intersex main character in a television show, [166] and television's first intersex character played by an intersex actor. [167]

Civil society institutions Edit

Intersex peer support and advocacy organizations have existed since at least 1985, with the establishment of the Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome Support Group Australia in 1985. [168] The Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome Support Group (UK) was established in 1988. [169] The Intersex Society of North America (ISNA) may have been one of the first intersex civil society organizations to have been open to people regardless of diagnosis it was active from 1993 to 2008. [170]

Events Edit

Intersex Awareness Day is an internationally observed civil awareness day designed to highlight the challenges faced by intersex people, occurring annually on 26 October. It marks the first public demonstration by intersex people, which took place in Boston on 26 October 1996, outside a venue where the American Academy of Pediatrics was holding its annual conference. [171]

Intersex Day of Remembrance, also known as Intersex Solidarity Day, is an internationally observed civil awareness day designed to highlight issues faced by intersex people, occurring annually on 8 November. It marks the birthday of Herculine Barbin , a French intersex person whose memoirs were later published by Michel Foucault in Herculine Barbin: Being the Recently Discovered Memoirs of a Nineteenth-century French Hermaphrodite.

Flag Edit

The intersex flag was created in July 2013 by Morgan Carpenter of Intersex Human Rights Australia to create a flag "that is not derivative, but is yet firmly grounded in meaning". The circle is described as "unbroken and unornamented, symbolising wholeness and completeness, and our potentialities. We are still fighting for bodily autonomy and genital integrity, and this symbolises the right to be who and how we want to be." [172]

Religion Edit

In Judaism, the Talmud contains extensive discussion concerning the status of two types of intersex people in Jewish law namely, the androgynous, who exhibit both male and female external sexual organs, and the tumtum, who exhibit neither. In the 1970s and 1980s, the treatment of intersex babies started to be discussed in Orthodox Jewish medical halacha by prominent rabbinic leaders, such as Eliezer Waldenberg and Moshe Feinstein. [173]

Sport Edit

Erik Schinegger, Foekje Dillema, Maria José Martínez-Patiño and Santhi Soundarajan were subject to adverse sex verification testing resulting in ineligibility to compete in organised competitive competition. Stanisława Walasiewicz was posthumously ruled ineligible to have competed. [174]

The South African middle-distance runner Caster Semenya won gold at the World Championships in the women's 800 metres and won silver in the 2012 Summer Olympics. When Semenya won gold in the World Championships, the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) requested sex verification tests. The results were not released. Semenya was ruled eligible to compete. [175]

Katrina Karkazis, Rebecca Jordan-Young, Georgiann Davis and Silvia Camporesi have claimed that IAAF policies on "hyperandrogenism" in female athletes are "significantly flawed", arguing that the policy does not protect against breaches of privacy, requires athletes to undergo unnecessary treatment in order to compete, and intensifies "gender policing", and recommended that athletes be able to compete in accordance with their legally-recognised gender. [176]

In April 2014, the BMJ reported that four elite women athletes with XY chromosomes and 5-ARD were subjected to sterilization and "partial clitoridectomies" in order to compete in sport. The authors noted that partial clitoridectomy was "not medically indicated" and "does not relate to real or perceived athletic 'advantage'." [27] Intersex advocates [ who? ] regarded this intervention as "a clearly coercive process". [177] In 2016, the United Nations Special Rapporteur on health, Dainius Pūras, criticized "current and historic" sex verification policies, describing how "a number of athletes have undergone gonadectomy (removal of reproductive organs) and partial clitoridectomy (a form of female genital mutilation) in the absence of symptoms or health issues warranting those procedures." [178]

In biology, "intersex" is defined as an organism with a mix of characteristics from both sexes. [179] A species can still be gonochoric and have intersex individuals. [180] A hermaphrodite is defined as an organism that has the ability to produce both male and female gametes. [181] [182] The term hermaphrodite for humans has been falling out of fashion in recent years due to there being no documented cases of hermaphroditism occurring in humans. [183] [184]

In other species Edit

Intersex has been reported in gonochoric crustaceans as early as 1729. A large amount of literature exists on intersexuality for isopoda and amphipoda, with there being reports of both intersex males and intersex females. [185]

Gonadal intersex also occurs in fishes, where the individual has both ovarian and testicular tissue. Although it is a rare anomaly among gonochoric fishes, it is a transitional state in fishes that are protandric or protogynous. [186]

Intersex can also occur in non-human mammals such as pigs, with it being estimated that 0.1% to 1.4% of pigs are intersex. [187]

Research in the late 20th century led to a growing medical consensus that diverse intersex bodies are normal, but relatively rare, forms of human biology. [9] [188] [189] [190] Clinician and researcher Milton Diamond stresses the importance of care in the selection of language related to intersex people:

Foremost, we advocate use of the terms "typical", "usual", or "most frequent" where it is more common to use the term "normal." When possible avoid expressions like maldeveloped or undeveloped, errors of development, defective genitals, abnormal, or mistakes of nature. Emphasize that all of these conditions are biologically understandable while they are statistically uncommon. [191]

Medical classifications Edit

Sexual differentiation Edit

The common pathway of sexual differentiation, where a productive human female has an XX chromosome pair, and a productive male has an XY pair, is relevant to the development of intersex conditions.

During fertilization, the sperm adds either an X (female) or a Y (male) chromosome to the X in the ovum. This determines the genetic sex of the embryo. During the first weeks of development, genetic male and female fetuses are "anatomically indistinguishable", with primitive gonads beginning to develop during approximately the sixth week of gestation. The gonads, in a bipotential state, may develop into either testes (the male gonads) or ovaries (the female gonads), depending on the consequent events. [192] Through the seventh week, genetically female and genetically male fetuses appear identical.

At around eight weeks of gestation, the gonads of an XY embryo differentiate into functional testes, secreting testosterone. Ovarian differentiation, for XX embryos, does not occur until approximately week 12 of gestation. In typical female differentiation, the Müllerian duct system develops into the uterus, Fallopian tubes, and inner third of the vagina. In males, the Müllerian duct-inhibiting hormone MIH causes this duct system to regress. Next, androgens cause the development of the Wolffian duct system, which develops into the vas deferens, seminal vesicles, and ejaculatory ducts. [192] By birth, the typical fetus has been completely sexed male or female, meaning that the genetic sex (XY-male or XX-female) corresponds with the phenotypical sex that is to say, genetic sex corresponds with internal and external gonads, and external appearance of the genitals.

Signs Edit

There are a variety of symptoms that can occur. Ambiguous genitalia is the most common sign. There can be micropenis, clitoromegaly, partial labial fusion, electrolyte abnormalities, delayed or absent puberty, unexpected changes at puberty, hypospadias, labial or inguinal (groin) masses (which may turn out to be testes) in girls and undescended testes (which may turn out to be ovaries) in boys. [193]

Ambiguous genitalia Edit

Ambiguous genitalia may appear as a large clitoris or as a small penis.

Because there is variation in all of the processes of the development of the sex organs, a child can be born with a sexual anatomy that is typically female or feminine in appearance with a larger-than-average clitoris (clitoral hypertrophy) or typically male or masculine in appearance with a smaller-than-average penis that is open along the underside. The appearance may be quite ambiguous, describable as female genitals with a very large clitoris and partially fused labia, or as male genitals with a very small penis, completely open along the midline ("hypospadic"), and empty scrotum. Fertility is variable. [ citation needed ]

Measurement systems for ambiguous genitalia Edit

The orchidometer is a medical instrument to measure the volume of the testicles. It was developed by Swiss pediatric endocrinologist Andrea Prader. The Prader scale [194] and Quigley scale are visual rating systems that measure genital appearance. These measurement systems were satirized in the Phall-O-Meter, created by the (now defunct) Intersex Society of North America. [195] [196] [197]

Other signs Edit

In order to help in classification, methods other than a genitalia inspection can be performed. For instance, a karyotype display of a tissue sample may determine which of the causes of intersex is prevalent in the case. Additionally, electrolyte tests, endoscopic exam, ultrasound and hormone stimulation tests can be done. [198]

Causes Edit

Intersex can be divided into four categories which are: 46, XX intersex 46, XY intersex true gonadal intersex and complex or undetermined intersex. [193]

46, XX intersex Edit

This condition used to be called "female pseudohermaphroditism". Persons with this condition have female internal genitalia and karyotype (XX) and various degree of external genitalia virilization. [199] External genitalia is masculinized congenitally when female fetus is exposed to excess androgenic environment. [193] Hence, the chromosome of the person is of a woman, the ovaries of a woman, but external genitals that appear like a male. The labia fuse, and the clitoris enlarges to appear like a penis. The causes of this can be male hormones taken during pregnancy, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, male-hormone-producing tumors in the mother and aromatase deficiency. [193]

46, XY intersex Edit

This condition used to be called "male pseudohermaphroditism". This is defined as incomplete masculinization of the external genitalia. [200] Thus, the person has the chromosomes of a man, but the external genitals are incompletely formed, ambiguous, or clearly female. [193] [201] This condition is also called 46, XY with undervirilization. [193] 46, XY intersex has many possible causes, which can be problems with the testes and testosterone formation. [193] Also, there can be problems with using testosterone. Some people lack the enzyme needed to convert testosterone to dihydrotestosterone, which is a cause of 5-alpha-reductase deficiency. [193] Androgen insensitivity syndrome is the most common cause of 46, XY intersex. [193]

True gonadal intersex Edit

This condition used to be called "true hermaphroditism". This is defined as having asymmetrical gonads with ovarian and testicular differentiation on either sides separately or combined as ovotestis. [202] In most cases, the cause of this condition is unknown.

Complex or undetermined intersex Edit

This is the condition of having any chromosome configurations rather than 46, XX or 46, XY intersex. This condition does not result in an imbalance between internal and external genitalia. However, there may be problems with sex hormone levels, overall sexual development, and altered numbers of sex chromosomes. [193]

Conditions Edit

There are a variety of opinions on what conditions or traits are and are not intersex, dependent on the definition of intersex that is used. Current human rights based definitions stress a broad diversity of sex characteristics that differ from expectations for male or female bodies. [2] During 2015, the Council of Europe, [73] the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights [203] and Inter-American Commission on Human Rights [204] have called for a review of medical classifications on the basis that they presently impede enjoyment of the right to health the Council of Europe expressed concern that "the gap between the expectations of human rights organisations of intersex people and the development of medical classifications has possibly widened over the past decade". [73] [203] [204]

Medical interventions Edit

Rationales Edit

Medical interventions take place to address physical health concerns and psychosocial risks. Both types of rationale are the subject of debate, particularly as the consequences of surgical (and many hormonal) interventions are lifelong and irreversible. Questions regarding physical health include accurately assessing risk levels, necessity, and timing. Psychosocial rationales are particularly susceptible to questions of necessity as they reflect social and cultural concerns.

There remains no clinical consensus about an evidence base, surgical timing, necessity, type of surgical intervention, and degree of difference warranting intervention. [205] [206] [207] Such surgeries are the subject of significant contention due to consequences that include trauma, impact on sexual function and sensation, and violation of rights to physical and mental integrity. [1] This includes community activism, [111] and multiple reports by international human rights [29] [73] [33] [208] and health [143] institutions and national ethics bodies. [32] [209]

In the cases where gonads may pose a cancer risk, as in some cases of androgen insensitivity syndrome, [210] concern has been expressed that treatment rationales and decision-making regarding cancer risk may encapsulate decisions around a desire for surgical "normalization". [31]


Types of Vertebrae

There are several different types of vertebrae found within most vertebrates, named for the parts of the body they are located in.

Cervical vertebrae

At the base of the skull, the vertebral column starts with the cervical vertebrae. There are seven of these, and they are numbered C1 through C7. C1 is also dubbed the atlas, while C2 is the axis both of these have more unique shapes—due to how they support the skull—in comparison with the other vertebrae. It’s the cervical vertebrae that allow our necks the full range of motion they have. Somewhat surprisingly,a giraffe has the same number of cervical vertebrae that a person does—they’re just larger.

Thoracic Vertebrae

Lumbar Vertebrae

The next five vertebrae are the lumbar vertebrae, and these are the largest of the vertebrae. They produce a natural curvature to the spine and support the greatest weight of the vertebrae. They allow for flexion, extension, and side-bending. Chimpanzees only have three lumbar vertebrae.

Sacrum and Coccyx

The remaining vertebrae are the five vertebrae that form the fused sacrum, as well as the three to five vertebrae that form the coccyx or tailbone. The sacral and coccygeal vertebrae do not have intervertebral discs. These bones are sometimes referred to as the caudal vertebrae and have the most variation in number, with some species having a few and others having 50caudal vertebrae.


The Evolutionary Synthesis

Despite a storm of controversy over the mechanism, the fact of evolution was rapidly accepted by scientists. Only after the mechanism of heredity was understood and only after the science of genetics was integrated with natural history was the debate over the mechanism of natural selection extinguished. This took place between 1920 and 1950 and was part of the event called the Ȯvolutionary synthesis." The evolutionary synthesis drew on the work of genetics, systematics, botany, paleontology, cytology , and morphology to create what contemporary scientists call the "synthetic theory of evolution" or the "Neo-Darwinian theory of evolution."

The evolutionary synthesis drew on the work of twentieth-century biologists like Theodosius Dobzhansky (1900�), Ernst Mayr (b. 1904), Julian Huxley (1887�), George Ledyard Stebbins (1906�), and George Gaylord Simpson (1902�). It endorses the view that natural selection is the dominant mechanism that drives evolutionary change. In 1975, Dobzhansky stated the important fact that "nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution." In stating this, he was stressing the fact that evolution by means of natural selection serves as the central, unifying principle of the modern science of biology.

Vassiliki Betty Smocovitis


Biochemical properties

The final step to determining your bacterial species is a series of tests to know its biochemical properties.

You can test if your bacterium can perform protein, starch or lipid hydrolysis. The method is simple: you streak your cells on a milk agar plate, a starch agar plate and a tributyrin agar plate. If a clear zone forms around your colony on the milk agar plate, it means that it has protease, the enzyme that breaks down proteins (in this case the protein is casein). Bacillus cereus for example is capable or protein hydrolysis. If a bluish brown color appears on your starch plate when you flood it with iodine, it means that your species possesses amylase, the enzyme that turns starch into dextrans, maltose, glucose. An example of a bacterial strain with this enzyme is also Bacillus cereus. Finally, your unknown has the enzyme that hydrolyses lipids into glycerol and fatty acids (lipase), if a clear zone appears around the colony. It might be Pseudomonas fluorescens.

You can then test for nitrate reduction (denitrification). You place your bacterial strain in a medium containing nitrate and an indicator. If the result is negative, it might mean that the bacteria do not reduce nitrate but it might also mean that the nitrate was reduced to nitrite and then further reduced to ammonia. In this case, you add some zinc powder to your tube: the zinc reacts with nitrate thus creating a color change. If the bacteria have further reduced the nitrogen, there will be no color change. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia marcescens reduce nitrate while Bacillus subtilis doesn&apost.

The next test consists in placing your bacteria in fermentation tubes with glucose, lactose or sucrose and an indicator (phenol red). The indicator is red at a neutral pH and turns yellow in an acidic pH. Here are some example of bacteria and what they ferment: Staphylococcus aureus ferments glucose, lactose and sucrose and doesn&apost produce gas, Bacillus subtilis only ferments glucose with no gas production, Proteus vulgaris ferments glucose and sucrose and creates gas, Pseudomonas aerugenosa doesn&apost ferment anything and Escherichia coli ferments glucose and lactose with gas formation.

You can also test for inulin fermentation. Inulin is fructose containing oligosaccharides. You test this in a cystine trypticase agar tube with phenol red as an indicator. It&aposs a way to differenciate Streptococcus pneumoniae from other alpha-hemolytic streptococci. Another way of distinguishing S. pneumoniae for the others is through a bile solubility test using sodium deoxycholate solution as a reagent.


I'm Not Male. I'm Not Female. Please Don't Ask Me About My Junk.

You'd be surprised how many people ask me about my crotch. It's a lot. I have had people ask me which "parts" I have, how they look, what I plan to do with them. I don't run around with a sign that says "ask me about my crotch," but as soon as I bring up my gender identity to certain people, all of a sudden it appears on the discussion table like a highly inappropriate Seamless order. Yes, even in New York. Yes, even among seemingly "progressive" people. And it stems from the fact that most people you meet simply do not know much about non-binary gender identities.

It usually goes like this:

"So you don't feel like a boy or girl?"

I have had this exact conversation at least once a week, every week, since coming out publicly in November. It's not one I mind it just gets repetitive, and occasionally a little insulting if the conversation leads to questions like, "So you're just trying to be different?" With trans visibility increasing more quickly than ever, non-binary gender identity is coming into focus, too.

And it's often misunderstood.

On Tuesday, The New York Times Magazine published a brief etymology of the words "they" and "them" as pronouns for people who identify as genderqueer, genderfluid, agender, gender-noncomforming, and other genders. The piece is another stride in acknowledging those who do not feel they fit on the current male/female binary&mdashand another piece in the growing conversation surrounding gender in society.

As someone who identifies with gender-neutral pronouns, I was amped to see The Times bring the discussion onto the radar of readers who may not know there are even people out there who don't identify as male or female. I've been out for four months, but I've known I'm not cisgender for the last five or so years (probably longer, if I'm honest, depending on how you interpret some odd childhood habits).

Here are some of questions I've frequently been asked since coming out:

Aren't you just born with your gender?

While gender and sex are frequently used interchangeably, the two do not mean the same thing. Your sex relates to your biology, both physiological and anatomical, which often influences how you're treated in society (example: the enforcing of gender roles), but it is not the same as gender.

According to the World Health Organization, gender is "the socially constructed characteristics of women and men." It goes on to emphasize the importance of sensitivity to "different identities that do not necessarily fit into binary male and female sex categories."

What's the difference between a non-binary and a binary identity?

The gender binary separates those who identify as male or female, simple as that. Non-binary genders, however, don't fit neatly within these two&mdashthey can be a combination of male and female, a fluid back-and-forth, or totally outside of the binary. Cisgender people, on the other hand, are folks whose identities align with the gender they were assigned at birth.

Note: "Non-binary" is an imperfect catchall for any gender outside of female and male, but it's what I'll primarily use in this rundown for simplicity's sake.

Does this mean you don't look female or male?

A common misconception is that all non-binary people are androgynous, but that isn't the case. The way you present yourself (gender expression) and the way you identify can be connected, but they are not necessarily dependent on one another.

I do not identify as a woman, but the above photos show you that I present fairly feminine, meaning most people assume I am a cisgender woman until I inform them otherwise. I keep my hair long because I prefer a lob cut. I don't shave my legs. I wear dresses once in a while, and I play with makeup every day because it's literally my job (I'm the Beauty Editor of GoodHousekeeping.com).

At the same time, I know people who identify as genderqueer, agender, genderfluid, and non-binary who have beards and wax their legs. I know others who sculpt their faces with makeup and prefer suits. I know some who wear no makeup at all and prefer short hair&mdashall sorts of expressions that depend wholly on the individual.

Are non-binary people considered transgender?

There's actually not a standardized answer for this. While non-binary people often get shuffled into the transgender category, some people who are non-binary do not identify as transgender, while others do.

Does this mean you're gay?

Nope. Your sexual orientation and your gender identity are separate. A transwoman who dated primarily women earlier in life would not necessarily start being attracted to men simply because she had come out as a woman. I'm queer and attracted to people of various genders&mdashand have, in fact, dated several straight-identifying people.

I keep my hair long. I don't shave my legs. I wear dresses once in a while, and I play with makeup every day because it's literally my job.

How do I know which pronouns to use for someone?

Ask! It's the quickest and most reliable way to determine someone's pronouns. I like to keep mine in my Twitter bio for visibility. Some people use they and them, like me, while others use ze and zir, xe and xem, or ze and hir. There are so many alternatives. Some non-binary people simply utilize he and him or she and her, too, so again, it's always best to ask.

But how do you use they, their, and they in reference to a single person?

Using these words can feel a little odd at first. When I came out to my team at work, I gave them examples to clarify how my preferred pronouns are used to make the transition easier.

Example 1: Catherine is a great musician, they should start a band.

Example 2: I can't get a hold of Jesse&mdashcan somebody call them for me?

Example 3: Peter loves their dog so much.

That sounds like a lot of work. Can't we just use the old ones?

Yeah, nah. It's really not difficult, and it's pretty annoying when people claim it is.

Imagine your name is Jack, but every time your boss speaks to you, they call you Jim, or Jennifer, or James. Or if you're a man and someone keeps calling you "Mrs." It may feel uncomfortable, or at least inaccurate. It's equally, if not more, frustrating to be constantly labeled as somebody else with regard to gender, so it's very helpful when people actually listen and act respectfully. If you can learn somebody's name, you can learn their pronouns.

What if I mess up and call someone the wrong pronoun?

Do your best! It can and will be initially awkward to misgender someone, but putting in effort to learn and get accustomed to a person's preferred pronouns is the best way to show you respect their identity.

So. which bathroom do you use?

Well, I would prefer to safely use whichever one is most readily available, as would most people, though certain lawmakers and general assholes would love to see that outlawed. When forced to choose between a men's room and a women's room, I typically use the women's restroom because it's the one that will garner the least amount of attention, negative or otherwise.

Everyone is different, of course, but the general consensus is that trans and non-binary people would just like to use the bathroom, period, with no bullying, threats of violence, or laws imposing our ability to do so.

Is it ever okay to ask non-binary people about "which parts" they have?

Just gonna go with a hard "no" on this one, though it's shocking how many people think it's okay to ask someone about what's going on in their pants. It would be weird if someone at a party spontaneously asked you about your junk, right? So maybe don't ask your trans and non-binary friends and acquaintances what's up with theirs. Thanks in advance.