Information

2.4: Present State - Biology


As a surprising side note, the standard models commonly taught in ecology courses are not complete, and a main purpose of this book is to help make them more so. For two-species interactions, another theory concerning mutualisms and a related kind of population growth is highly under-developed, and the theory of three-species interactions is even less complete.


Figure (PageIndex{1}) The eternal mystery of the universe is its comprehensibility. —A. Einstein


Contents

The toponymy of Tonb is in all likelihood of Persian origin. In the local Persian dialect(s) of southern Persia, the noun Tomb andTonb, with its diminutive Tonbu or Tombu, as it applied to Lesser Tonb (Nāmiuh or Nābiuh Tonb), means “hill” or “low elevation” (cfr. Medieval Latin tumba and Ancient Greek tymbos, with the same meaning, roots for "tomb"). The terms have the same meaning in the larger Dari Persian language system this explains in part the traces of tonb and tonbu in the toponyms found in the Bushehr and Lengeh regions, some 300 miles (480 km) apart. There are other toponyms such as Tonb-e Seh in Tangestān and Tonbānu on Qeshm island. [5]

Etymologically, the word TNB is also a proper Arabic word, which means to anchor, according to the Medieval Arab linguist Ibn Fares. [6]

Reference to Great Tonb as an Iranian island is found in Ibn Balkhi's 12th-century Farsnameh and Hamdallah Mustawfi Kazvini's 14th-century Nuzhat al-Qulub. The Tonbs were dominions of the Kings of Hormuz from 1330 or so until Hormuz's capitulation to the Portuguese in 1507. The Tonbs remained a part of the Hormuzi-Portuguese administration until 1622, when the Portuguese were expelled from the Persian littoral by the Persian central government. During this period, the human geography, commerce, and territorial administration of the Tonbs, along with Abu Musa and Sirri islands, became intimately connected with the Province of Fars, notably the Persian ports of Bandar Lengeh and Bandar Kang, and the nearby Qeshm and Hengam islands. [3]

It has been remarked, in the context of the limits of the Persian empire in the Persian Gulf in the middle of the 18th century, that "[a]ll the islands off the Persian coast, from Kharqu and Kharaq in the north to Hormoz and Larak in the south, were rightly Persian, though many were in the hands of Arab tribes". Consistent with this, the British in 1800 were also of the belief that "[a]lthough the King exercises no positive authority over any of the islands of the Persian Gulf, those on the northern shore are all considered as part of the Empire". [5]

An 1804 map of German origin [ citation needed ] showed the southern coast of Iran as the habitat of the "Bani Hule" tribe and the islands, coloured in the same orange, were designated as "Thunb unbenohul". The "Bani Hule" or Howalla were a loosely defined grouping of peoples of distant Arab origin but with longstanding residence on the Iranian coast. Regardless of the spelling of the toponym as "Tonb", be it from the Arabic tÂonb (abode) or from the Persian tonb (hill), the attribution to the larger island of this epithet highlighted the islands' intimate association with the Persian coast and its inhabitants. One of the clans belonging to the Howalla or "Bani Hule" of the Persian coast was that of the Qasimi. Their Arab tribal origins are not as clearly established as is, however, their Persian geographical origin immediately prior to their rise to notoriety in the lower Persian Gulf. [ clarification needed ] This occurred in the 18th century. [5]

18th century Edit

During the 1720s, the Qasami had emigrated from the Persian coast and established themselves as a force in Sharjah and Julfar (Ras al-Khaimah, now part of UAE). In the period 1747–59, a branch of the Qasemi from Sharjah established itself on the Persian littoral, but it was expelled in 1767. By 1780, the Qasemi branch was re-established on the Persian coast and began to feud with other coastal tribes over pasturage in the islands off Langeh. The Iranian argument for the ownership of the disputed islands is that the Qasami controlled the islands while they were located on the Persian coast, not when they later emigrated to the UAE coast. In April 1873, the islands were reported as a dependency of the Persian Fars province to the British Resident, which the Resident acknowledged. In the period 1786–1835 the official British opinion, surveys, and maps identified the Tonbs as part of Langeh, subject to the government of the province of Fars. Chief among them were the works of Lt. John McCluer (1786), political counselor John Macdonald Kinneir (1813), and Lt. George Barns Brucks (1829). [5]

19th century Edit

In 1835, the Bani Yas attacked a British ship off Greater Tonb. In the ensuing maritime peace arranged by the British Political Resident Samuel Hennell, a restrictive line was established between Abu Musa and Sirri islands, and pledges were obtained from the tribes of the lower Persian Gulf not to venture their war boats north of the line. In view of Sirri and Abu Musa being pirate lairs themselves, Hennell's successor, Major James Morrison, in January 1836, modified the restrictive line to run from Sham on the Trucial Coast to a point ten miles south of Abu Musa to Sáir Abu Noayr island. In either of its configurations, the restrictive line placed the Tonbs outside of the reach of the war boats of the Qasemi, Bani Yas, and other tribes of the lower Persian Gulf. The 1835 maritime truce was made permanent in 1853 after a series of earlier extensions. Force being no longer a viable option for settlement of disputes, especially on the part of the Qasemi of the lower Persian Gulf, the enforcement of Qasemi's claims to islands such as Abu Musa and Greater Tonb became a subject for the British colonial administration in the Persian Gulf. In that context, the Resident and its agents on several occasions (1864, 1873, 1879, 1881) had been seized with the question of the ownership of the Tonbs, but the British government had refused to go along with the claims of the Qasemi of the lower Persian Gulf. [5]

In the period 1836–86, the official British surveys, maps, and administrative reports continued to identify the Tonbs as part of Langeh, subject to the government of Fars province. Among them were the works of Lt. Colonel Robert Taylor (1836), the Resident A.B. Kemball (1854), the Resident Lewis Pelly (1864), The Persian Gulf Pilot (1864), an admiralty publication, the 1870 (second) edition of The Persian Gulf Pilot, and the 1886 Map of Persia, which was issued by the intelligence branch of the British war office and showed the Tonbs in the colour of Persia. [5]

Until this date (1886), the British acknowledged Persian ownership of the islands. In February 1887, the Persian central government reorganised the ports of Bushehr, Langeh, and Bandar Abbas, together with their dependent districts and islands, into a new administrative unit called the Persian Gulf Ports and placed it under the charge of a member of the Qajar royal family, dissolving the Qasami governorship later in September. These and other Persian actions prompted the British to change their stance on the ownership of the islands due to suspicion that the new Persian policy was influenced by German and Russian interests. By August 1888, Britain decided to acquiesce in the Persian actions on Sirri, leaving alone the concerns over Tonb, even though the Persian government's rebuff of the British protests had coupled their claim to Sirri with one to Tonb). The British regard for the Persian claim to Sirri (and perhaps Tonb) was affected significantly by the depiction of the Tonbs and Serri in the same colour as that of Persia in the 1886 Map of Persia, which Naser-al-Din Shah Qajar of Persia now astutely cited against the British when they protested the Persian actions on Sirri. The British acquiescence in the Persian claim to Serri demeaned the very theory on which the protest had been based. [5]

The Qasemi administrators of Langa were of the same original stock as the Qasemi of the lower Persian Gulf however, their rise on the Persian littoral and to the political administration of Langa and its dependencies were attributable primarily to their distance from the politics and piratical activities of their kinsmen in Sharjah and Ras al-Khaimah . Consequently, when the British government pacified the tribes of the lower Persian Gulf, which it had labelled as "pirates" (hence the term "Pirate Coast") in a series of naval engagements in the early 19th century, and then exacted from them a general surrender in 1820 and a maritime truce in the 1830s (hence the term "Trucial" Shaikhdoms), the Qasemi of the Persian coast were spared the ravages and humiliation suffered by their namesake in the lower Persian Gulf. The view that the Qasemi of Langeh had administered the Tonbs, Abu Musa, and Serri islands as the lieutenants of the Qasemi of the lower Persian Gulf was rebutted in later years by a legal adviser at the British foreign office in 1932 and the head of its eastern department in 1934. [5]

Besides the Persian territorial and political ambitions in the Persian Gulf, in the period 1888–1903 the British government was worried equally about French intrigues, and Russian and German naval and economic interests in the region. It had already been determined by the British that the Persian actions on Sirri and elsewhere in the Persian Gulf were inspired by Russia. In pursuit of a forward policy based on Curzon's views, which included the marking of the territories under their direct and indirect colonial control, the British government undertook a project to erect flagstaffs in a number of locations in the Persian Gulf.

In the pursuit of British imperial considerations, the lack of regard for Persian sensibilities was no problem. Already, in 1901, a British government memorandum openly suggested that, where strategic necessity required, Britain would seize any of the Persian islands, and in March 1902 Curzon recommended that the British navy hoist a flag on Qeshm island in the case of necessity. On June 14, 1904, the Persian government removed its presence from Abu Musa and Greater Tonb subject to the reservations, as reported by the British minister. In a note to the British minister, the Persian foreign minister stated that neither party should hoist flags in the islands until the settlement of the question of ownership, but the sheikh of Sharjah hoisted their flags three days later. In the Iranian annals of the diplomatic history of the Tonbs and Abu Musa, the Persian agreement to withdraw from the islands on 14 June 1904, subject to reservations, is known as the "status quo agreement." The re-flagging of the islands by Sharjah three days after the withdrawal of the Persians violated the status quo agreement, rendering moot the legal relevance of any subsequent presence and activity by Sharjah on the islands and also any by Ras al-Khaimah with respect to the Tonbs from 1921 onward. [5]

20th century Edit

During the 20th century, several attempts at negotiations were made. On 29 November 1971, shortly before the end of the British protectorate and the formation of the UAE, Iran seized semi-control of Abu Musa under an agreement of joint administration together with Sharjah, with both sides nominally upholding their separate claims. A day later, on 30 November 1971, Iran forcibly seized control of the Tunb Islands and Abu Musa, against the resistance of the tiny Arab police force stationed there. The Iranians were instructed not to open fire, and the first [7] shots came from the Arab resistance which killed four Iranian marines and injured one. [ citation needed ] In his book Territorial foundations of the Gulf states, Schofield states that according to some sources, the Arab civilian population of Greater Tunb of about 120 was then deported to Ras Al Khaimah, but according to other sources the island had already been uninhabited for some time. [8]

Present situation Edit

In the following decades, the issue remained a source of friction between the Arab states and Iran. The Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf repeatedly declared support for the UAE claims. Bilateral talks between the UAE and Iran in 1992 failed. The UAE have attempted to bring the dispute before the International Court of Justice, [9] but Iran refuses to do so. Tehran says the islands always belonged to it as it had never renounced possession of the islands, and that they are an integral part of Iranian territory. [10] The emirate of Ras al-Khaimah argue that the islands were under the control of Qasimi sheikhs, a branch of which administered the port of Bandar Lengeh for the Persian government from ca. 1789 to 1887, [5] and UAE as the successor to the tribal patrimony of the tribe, may inherit their rights. Iran counters by stating that the local Qasimi rulers during a crucial part of the previous centuries were actually based on the Iranian, not the Arab, coast, and had thus has been Persian subjects. [11] The UAE refers to the islands as "occupied". [12]


The Age of a Father is Twice the Square of the Age of His Son. Eight Years Hence, The Age of the Father Will Be 4 Years More than Three Times the Age of the Son. Find Their Present Ages. - Mathematics

The age of a father is twice the square of the age of his son. Eight years hence, the age of the father will be 4 years more than three times the age of the son. Find their present ages.

Solution Show Solution

Let the present age of the son be x years.
&there4 Present age of father =` 2x^2 `years
Eight years hence,
Son's age = (x + 8) years
Father's age =` (2x^2 + 8)` years
It is given that eight years hence, the age of the father will be 4 years more than three times the age of the son.

`&there4 2x^2 + 8 = 3(x + 8) + 4`
`2x^2 + 8 = 3x + 24 + 4`
`2x^2 &minus 3x &minus 20 = 0`
`2x^2 &minus 8x + 5x &minus 20 = 0`
`2x(x &minus 4) + 5(x &minus 4) = 0`
`(x - 4) (2x + 5) = 0`

But, the age cannot be negative, so, x = 4.
Present age of son = 4 years
Present age of father = 2(4) 2 years = 32 years.


AP Biology

AP Biology is a college-level laboratory-based science course for academically advanced students who have had an introductory life science course and wish to study biology at a more challenging level. Students will study principles of living systems at the molecular, cellular and organismic levels of organization. This course provides students with an opportunity to develop a conceptual framework for modern biology emphasizing: science as a process evolution as the foundation of modern biological thought and applications of biological knowledge and critical thinking to environmental and social concerns.

Students should be prepared to take extended notes, work on college level labs, study for both detail and application, and complete multiple written laboratory/research papers

This course is designed to cover a variety of topics within the sciences. Biology is a fascinating subject. It has many applications that transcend society. From agriculture to medicine, many of the applications of biology have a profound impact on our daily lives. Whether it is the how a pesticide can change an entire aquatic community and lead indirectly to the deaths of frogs, or the engineering of a drought resistant crop that enables populations of people to survive and prosper in an arid environment, biology is like no other science. The scientific study of life requires the student to have a working knowledge of physics, mathematics, and chemistry, and like no other subject, biology ties all of these disciplines together in fundamental ways that allows us to make sense of the living world.

Texts:
Reece, J. B., & Campbell, N. A. (2011). Campbell biology Jane B. Reece . [et al.]. (9th ed.). Boston: Benjamin Cummings.

Shubin, N. (2008). Your inner fish: a journey into the 3.5-billion-year history of the human body. New York: Pantheon Books.

Skloot, R. (2010). The immortal life of Henrietta Lacks. New York: Crown Publishers.

Units That Will Be Covered During This Course:

• Unit 1: Evolution
• Unit 2: Biochemistry and Abiogenesis
• Unit 3: Reproduction and Inheritance
• Unit 4: Development and Genetic Regulation
• Unit 5: Cells and Homeostasis
• Unit 6: Body Systems and Homeostasis
• Unit 7: Energy
• Unit 8: Ecology
Notes

Students should keep an updated and detailed collection of notes in their InfoBooks. These notes will be a combination of in-class items and out-of-class notes.

Out-of-Class Notes
Students will need to login each evening to our class website to take the notes for the NEXT day. Students should come to class prepared to go over the notes, review the information, engage in discussions and questions, and be prepared for a potential pop quiz on the material.
• Students who come to class missing notes will not participate in labs and activities. Instead, they will need to grab a laptop and take the notes due for the day at the back of the room. When finished, they may rejoin the class. Any work missed will need to be made up on their own time.
• I will add notes for the upcoming week on the weekend.
• You have one week to get them down. Have notes ready for THAT day of class.
• The following week, I unpublished the notes.
• Before the semester final, I republish all slides.

How to Record Notes
1. Use an “Outline” format.
2. You may copy word-for-word from my notes, put them in your own words, use figures/diagrams/pictures, etc.
3. I won’t be checking your notes, but if it looks like you don’t know what is going on I may ask to see your notes. No notes = you will need to sit in the back of the class to take them.
4. Use Thinking Webs (see chart below) to process the notes. Do at least one Thinking Map that aligns with and answers the “Evaluation Question” located at the end of the PowerPoint. This is a requirement.

In-Class Notes
Students should bring their InfoBooks to class prepared with notes from the night before. During class, they should take additional notes, highlight key information, and use annotations to build off their work from the night before.

InfoBook: This is a notebook for your main study materials. It includes:
• Notes
• Do Nows
• Push Questions
• Essential Questions
• IBRT
• Labs
• Free Response Questions
• Project Work
• Claim, Evidence, Reasoning – Arguments (CERs)

This class will be able to access PowerPoints, notes, other documents at Schoology.com. A later document will provide more details.

You will need to access www.schoology.com and then create a username and password. The access code for the AP Environmental Science course is

In order to succeed in AP Biology, it is going to be necessary to study thoroughly each evening. You may complete all homework, preform well on quizzes, work hard to get labs done, and complete coursework, but if you do not study each and every evening, it will be difficult to achieve a high score on the AP exam.

In order to encourage studying and staying on top of notes/reading, Pop Quizzes will be will be given twice a week at random. The pop quiz will be given at the beginning of class following the Do Now.

You must study each night in order to be prepared for these. Most pop quizzes will be around 5 questions in length and addressing one standard. The questions are based on the following:
¥ 3 Questions from Previous Days
¥ 2 Questions on Notes Due for Today

Level of Difficulty: Easy - Medium
Quizzes and Unit Tests

Quizzes will be given every week on Wednesday to test material from the week before. At the end of every unit, a larger unit test will be given covering topics from the unit. Finally, each semester end will be capped with a semester exam that will cover all topics from the semester.

To perform well on these assessments, keep class notes, worksheets, and labs to use as resources to study and prepare.

Core Quiz Level of Difficulty: Medium – Difficult
Unit Test Level of Difficulty: Difficult

• 1 week for Quizzes - Remaster on standards you did poorly on.
• 1 week for Unit Tests - Remaster on standards you did poorly on.
• No remastery on semester tests and labs.

Free Response Questions (FRQs)

The AP exam will require multiple free response questions (FRQs) to be answered. Excellent writing with a strong knowledge of the content will help you to succeed. To help you practice answering FRQs, we will do long and short response FRQs.

FRQ performance will be tracked in our goal trackers. I grade FRQs on unit tests and quizzes. Practice FRQs will be graded by your peers.

You will need to complete both formal and informal labs throughout the year.

Informal Labs
Informal labs are typically turned in for a grade in lab notebooks. They focus on specific components of the scientific method and reflection questions for the lab. You will perform several informal labs a quarter.

Formal Labs
Formal labs also need information and data to be collected in the lab notebook. However, they focus on the entire scientific process and will be turned in for a significant grade. They are typed, include background research, and show your thought and mastery on the subject.

Students will complete 1 formal lab a quarter.

Scientific Argumentation Projects

College courses and AP courses require extensive writing. As well, writing is an essential skill for many jobs. Finally, people make claims all the time in the world…and never are able to back them up well. Being able to write a true argument for a given claim makes you a more critical thinker.

In class, we will be completing many informal and formal labs that use an argumentative structure:
1. Claim
2. Evidence
3. Justification/Reasoning

The claim is where you will state an answer to a point of inquiry or questions. Evidence is where you list concrete data that helps to back your claim. Finally, justification explains how each piece of evidence independently supports the claim.

Class Discussions Around Class Books

Each semester, we will be reading a class book. On alternating Thursdays, we will have an open class discussion on questions and problems posed by the book. You will be given chapter questions ahead of time in preparation for the discussion.

You will need to respond to the questions for each chapter. The class will receive a grade based on a class discussion rubric and preparation for the reading. At least 50% of the class must come chapter questions answered for the discussion to occur. If less than 50% of the class has all questions prepared, the discussion is canceled. A 0 is assigned as a score to unprepared students. Full points are awarded to students who prepared.

On unit tests, one FRQ will be based on the book/discussions. You may use your book and answered/prepared questions to answer this FRQ. This is an incentive to keep up with the questions and reading.

Science – AP Biology
Curriculum Map 2017-2018

Timeline
Quarter Cycle
Unit
Weeks (Q1 = 10, Q2 = 9, Q3 = 9, Q4 = 10)
1
Unit 1: Evolution
5 Weeks
Unit 2: Biochemistry and Abiogenesis
3 Weeks

Unit 3: Reproduction and Inheritance
2 Weeks
2
Unit 3: Reproduction and Inheritance
6 Weeks
Unit 4: Development and Genetic Regulation
3 Weeks
3

Unit 5: Cells and Homeostasis
4 Weeks
Unit 6: Body Systems and Homeostasis
5 Weeks
4
Unit 6: Body Systems and Homeostasis
1 Week
Unit 7: Energy
5 Weeks

Content Standards
Unit
Big Idea
Enduring Understanding
Essential Knowledge
Learning Objectives
Unit 1: Evolution
Big Idea 1: The process of evolution drives the diversity and unity of life.

Enduring Understanding 1.A: Change in the genetic makeup of a population over time is evolution.
Essential Knowledge 1.A.1: Natural selection is a major mechanism of evolution.

LO 1.1: The student is able to convert a data set from a table of numbers that reflect a change in the genetic makeup of a population over time and to apply mathematical methods and conceptual understandings to investigate the cause(s) and effect(s) of this change. [See SP 1.5, 2.2]

LO 1.2: The student is able to evaluate evidence provided by data to qualitatively and/or quantitatively investigate the role of natural selection in evolution. [See SP 2.2, 5.3]

LO 1.3: The student is able to apply mathematical methods to data from a real or simulated population to predict what will happen to the population in the future. [See SP 2.2]
Essential Knowledge 1.A.2: Natural selection acts on phenotypic variations in populations.

LO 1.4: The student is able to evaluate data-based evidence that describes
evolutionary changes in the genetic makeup of a population over time. [See SP 5.3]

LO 1.5: The student is able to connect evolutionary changes in a population over
time to a change in the environment. [See SP 7.1]

Essential Knowledge 1.A.3: Evolutionary change is also driven by random processes.

LO 1.6: The student is able to use data from mathematical models based on the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium to analyze genetic drift and effects of selection in the evolution of specific populations. [See SP 1.4, 2.1]

LO 1.7: The student is able to justify the selection of data from mathematical models based on the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium to analyze genetic drift and the effects of selection in the evolution of specific populations. [See SP 2.1, 4.1]

LO 1.8: The student is able to make predictions about the effects of genetic drift, migration and artificial selection on the genetic makeup of a population. [See SP 6.4]

Essential Knowledge 1.A.4: Biological evolution is supported by scientific evidence from many disciplines, including mathematics.

LO 1.9: The student is able to evaluate evidence provided by data from many scientific disciplines that support biological evolution. [See SP 5.3]

LO 1.10: The student is able to refine evidence based on data from many scientific disciplines that support biological evolution. [See SP 5.2]

LO 1.11: The student is able to design a plan to answer scientific questions regarding how organisms have changed over time using information from morphology, biochemistry and geology. [See SP 4.2]

LO 1.12: The student is able to connect scientific evidence from many scientific disciplines to support the modern concept of evolution. [See SP 7.1]

LO 1.13: The student is able to construct and/or justify mathematical models, diagrams or simulations that represent processes of biological evolution. [See SP 1.1, 2.1]
Enduring Understanding 1.B: Organisms are linked by lines of descent from common ancestry.
Essential Knowledge 1.B.1: Organisms share many conserved core processes and features that evolved and are widely distributed among organisms today.

LO 1.14: The student is able to pose scientific questions that correctly identify essential properties of shared, core life processes that provide insights into the history of life on Earth. [See SP 3.1]

LO 1.15: The student is able to describe specific examples of conserved core biological processes and features shared by all domains or within one domain of life, and how these shared, conserved core processes and features support the concept of common ancestry for all organisms. [See SP 7.2]

LO 1.16: The student is able to justify the scientific claim that organisms share many conserved core processes and features that evolved and are widely distributed among organisms today. [See SP 6.1]
Essential Knowledge 1.B.2: Phylogenetic trees and cladograms are graphical representations (models) of evolutionary history that can be tested.

LO 1.17: The student is able to pose scientific questions about a group of organisms whose relatedness is described by a phylogenetic tree or cladogram in order to (1) identify shared characteristics, (2) make inferences about the evolutionary history of the group, and (3) identify character data that could extend or improve the phylogenetic tree. [See SP 3.1]

LO 1.18: The student is able to evaluate evidence provided by a data set in conjunction with a phylogenetic tree or a simple cladogram to determine evolutionary history and speciation. [See SP 5.3]

LO 1.19: The student is able create a phylogenetic tree or simple cladogram that correctly represents evolutionary history and speciation from a provided data set. [See SP 1.1]
Enduring Understanding 1.C: Life continues to evolve within a changing environment.

Essential Knowledge 1.C.1: Speciation and extinction have occurred throughout the Earth’s history.

LO 1.20: The student is able to analyze data related to questions of speciation and extinction throughout the Earth’s history. [See SP 5.1]

LO 1.21: The student is able to design a plan for collecting data to investigate the scientific claim that speciation and extinction have occurred throughout the Earth’s history. [See SP 4.2]
Essential Knowledge 1.C.2: Speciation may occur when two populations become reproductively isolated from each other.

LO 1.22: The student is able to use data from a real or simulated population(s), based on graphs or models of types of selection, to predict what will happen to the population in the future. [See SP 6.4]

LO 1.23: The student is able to justify the selection of data that address questions related to reproductive isolation and speciation. [See SP 4.1]

LO 1.24: The student is able to describe speciation in an isolated population and connect it to change in gene frequency, change in environment, natural selection and/or genetic drift. [See SP 7.2]
Essential Knowledge 1.C.3: Populations of organisms continue to evolve.

LO 1.25: The student is able to describe a model that represents evolution within a population. [See SP 1.2]

LO 1.26: The student is able to evaluate given data sets that illustrate evolution as an ongoing process. [See SP 5.3]
Enduring Understanding 1.D: The origin of living systems is explained by natural processes.

Essential Knowledge 1.D.2: Scientific evidence from many different disciplines supports models of the origin of life.

LO 1.32: The student is able to justify the selection of geological, physical, and chemical data that reveal early Earth conditions. [See SP 4.1]
Big Idea 3: Living systems store, retrieve, transmit and respond to information essential to life processes.

Enduring Understanding 3.C: The processing of genetic information is imperfect and is a source of genetic variation.

Essential Knowledge 3.C.1: Changes in genotype can result in changes in phenotype.

LO 3.24: The student is able to predict how a change in genotype, when expressed as a phenotype, provides a variation that can be subject to natural selection. [See SP 6.4, 7.2]

LO 3.26: The student is able to explain the connection between genetic variations in organisms and phenotypic variations in populations. [See SP 7.2]
Big Idea 4: Biological systems interact, and these systems and their interactions possess complex properties.

Enduring Understanding 4.C: Naturally occurring diversity among and between components within biological systems affects interactions with the environment.

Essential Knowledge 4.C.1: Variation in molecular units provides cells with a wider range of functions.

LO 4.22: The student is able to construct explanations based on evidence of how variation in molecular units provides cells with a wider range of functions. [See SP 6.2]
Essential Knowledge 4.C.2: Environmental factors influence the expression of the genotype in an organism.

LO 4.23: The student is able to construct explanations of the influence of environmental factors on the phenotype of an organism. [See SP 6.2]

LO 4.24: The student is able to predict the effects of a change in an environmental factor on the gene expression and the resulting phenotype of an organism. [See SP 6.4]

Essential Knowledge 4.C.3: The level of variation in a population affects population dynamics.

LO 4.25: The student is able to use evidence to justify a claim that a variety of phenotypic responses to a single environmental factor can result from different genotypes within the population. [See SP 6.1]

LO 4.26: The student is able to use theories and models to make scientific claims and/or predictions about the effects of variation within populations on survival and fitness. [See SP 6.4]
Unit 2: Biochemistry and Abiogenesis
Big Idea 1: The process of evolution drives the diversity and unity of life.
Enduring Understanding 1.D: The origin of living systems is explained by natural processes.

Essential Knowledge 1.D.1: There are several hypotheses about the natural origin of life on Earth, each with supporting scientific evidence.

LO 1.27: The student is able to describe a scientific hypothesis about the origin of life on Earth. [See SP 1.2]

LO 1.28: The student is able to evaluate scientific questions based on hypotheses about the origin of life on Earth. [See SP 3.3]

LO 1.29: The student is able to describe the reasons for revisions of scientific hypotheses of the origin of life on Earth. [See SP 6.3]

LO 1.30: The student is able to evaluate scientific hypotheses about the origin of life on Earth. [See SP 6.5]

LO 1.31: The student is able to evaluate the accuracy and legitimacy of data to answer scientific questions about the origin of life on Earth. [See SP 4.4]
Essential Knowledge 1.D.2: Scientific evidence from many different disciplines supports models of the origin of life.

LO 1.32: The student is able to justify the selection of geological, physical, and chemical data that reveal early Earth conditions. [See SP 4.1]
Big Idea 2: Biological systems utilize free energy and molecular building blocks to grow, to reproduce and to maintain dynamic homeostasis.
Enduring Understanding 2.A: Growth, reproduction and maintenance of the organization of living systems require free energy and matter.
Essential Knowledge 2.A.2: Organisms capture and store free energy for use in biological processes.

LO 2.5: The student is able to construct explanations of the mechanisms and structural features of cells that allow organisms to capture, store or use free energy. [See SP 6.2]
Essential Knowledge 2.A.3: Organisms must exchange matter with the environment to grow, reproduce and maintain organization.

LO 2.8: The student is able to justify the selection of data regarding the types of molecules that an animal, plant or bacterium will take up as necessary building blocks and excrete as waste products. [See SP 4.1]

LO 2.9: The student is able to represent graphically or model quantitatively the exchange of molecules between an organism and its environment, and the subsequent use of these molecules to build new molecules that facilitate dynamic homeostasis, growth and reproduction. [See SP 1.1, 1.4]
Enduring Understanding 2.B: Growth, reproduction and dynamic homeostasis require that cells create and maintain internal environments that are different from their external environments.

Essential Knowledge 2.B.1: Cell membranes are selectively permeable due to their structure.

LO 2.10: The student is able to use representations and models to pose scientific questions about the properties of cell membranes and selective permeability based on molecular structure. [See SP 1.4, 3.1]
Essential Knowledge 2.B.3: Eukaryotic cells maintain internal membranes that partition the cell into specialized regions.

LO 2.14: The student is able to use representations and models to describe differences in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. [See SP 1.2, 1.4]
Big Idea 3: Living systems store, retrieve, transmit and respond to information essential to life processes.

Enduring Understanding 3.A: Heritable information provides for continuity of life.

Essential Knowledge 3.A.1: DNA, and in some cases RNA, is the primary source of heritable information.

LO 3.1: The student is able to construct scientific explanations that use the structures and mechanisms of DNA and RNA to support the claim that DNA and, in some cases, that RNA are the primary sources of heritable information. [See SP 6.2, 6.5]
Big Idea 4: Biological systems interact, and these systems and their interactions possess complex properties.

Enduring Understanding 4.A: Interactions within biological systems lead to complex properties.

Essential Knowledge 4.A.1: The subcomponents of biological molecules and their sequence determine the properties of that molecule.

LO 4.1: The student is able to explain the connection between the sequence and the subcomponents of a biological polymer and its properties. [See SP 7.1]

LO 4.2: The student is able to refine representations and models to explain how the subcomponents of a biological polymer and their sequence determine the properties of that polymer. [See SP 1.3]

LO 4.3: The student is able to use models to predict and justify that changes in the subcomponents of a biological polymer affect the functionality of the molecule. [See SP 6.1, 6.4]
Unit 3: Reproduction and Inheritance
Big Idea 3: Living systems store, retrieve, transmit and respond to information essential to life processes.

Enduring Understanding 3.A: Heritable information provides for continuity of life.

Essential Knowledge 3.A.1: DNA, and in some cases RNA, is the primary source of heritable information.

LO 3.1: The student is able to construct scientific explanations that use the structures and mechanisms of DNA and RNA to support the claim that DNA and, in some cases, that RNA are the primary sources of heritable information. [See SP 6.2, 6.5]

LO 3.2: The student is able to justify the selection of data from historical investigations that support the claim that DNA is the source of heritable information. [See SP 4.1]

LO 3.3: The student is able to describe representations and models that illustrate how genetic information is copied for transmission between generations. [See SP 1.2]

LO 3.4: The student is able to describe representations and models illustrating how genetic information is translated into polypeptides. [See SP 1.2]

LO 3.5: The student can justify the claim that humans can explain how heritable information can be manipulated using common technologies. [See SP 6.4]

LO 3.6: The student can predict how a change in a specific DNA or RNA sequence can result in changes in gene expression. [See SP 6.4]
Essential Knowledge 3.A.2: In eukaryotes, heritable information is passed to the next generation via processes that include the cell cycle and mitosis or meiosis plus fertilization.

LO 3.7: The student can make predictions about natural phenomena occurring during the cell cycle. [See SP 6.4]

LO 3.8: The student can describe the events that occur in the cell cycle. [See SP 1.2]

LO 3.9: The student is able to construct an explanation, using visual representations or narratives, as to how DNA in chromosomes is transmitted to the next generation via mitosis, or meiosis followed by fertilization. [See SP 6.2]

LO 3.10: The student is able to represent the connection between meiosis and increased genetic diversity necessary for evolution. [See SP 7.1]

LO 3.11: The student is able to evaluate evidence provided by data sets to support the claim that heritable information is passed from one generation to another generation through mitosis, or meiosis followed by fertilization. [See SP 5.3]

Essential Knowledge 3.A.3: The chromosomal basis of inheritance provides an understanding of the pattern of passage (transmission) of genes from parent to offspring.

LO 3.12: The student is able to construct a representation that connects the process of meiosis to the passage of traits from parent to offspring. [See SP 1.1, 7.2]

LO 3.13: The student is able to pose questions about ethical, social or medical issues surrounding human genetic disorders. [See SP 3.1]

LO 3.14: The student is able to apply mathematical routines to determine Mendelian patterns of inheritance provided by data sets. [See SP 2.2]

Essential Knowledge 3.A.4: The inheritance pattern of many traits cannot be explained by simple Mendelian genetics.

LO 3.15: The student is able to explain deviations from Mendel’s model of the inheritance of traits. [See SP 6.5]

LO 3.16: The student is able to explain how the inheritance patterns of many traits cannot be accounted for by Mendelian genetics. [See SP 6.3]

LO 3.17: The student is able to describe representations of an appropriate example of inheritance patterns that cannot be explained by Mendel’s model of the inheritance of traits. [See SP 1.2]
Enduring Understanding 3.C: The processing of genetic information is imperfect and is a source of genetic variation.

Essential Knowledge 3.C.1: Changes in genotype can result in changes in phenotype.

LO 3.24: The student is able to predict how a change in genotype, when expressed as a phenotype, provides a variation that can be subject to natural selection. [See SP 6.4, 7.2]

LO 3.25: The student can create a visual representation to illustrate how changes in a DNA nucleotide sequence can result in a change in the polypeptide produced. [See SP 1.1]

LO 3.26: The student is able to explain the connection between genetic variations in organisms and phenotypic variations in populations. [See SP 7.2]
Essential Knowledge 3.C.2: Biological systems have multiple processes that increase genetic variation.

LO 3.27: The student is able to compare and contrast processes by which genetic variation is produced and maintained in organisms from multiple domains. [See SP 7.2]

LO 3.28: The student is able to construct an explanation of the multiple processes that increase variation within a population. [See SP 6.2]

Essential Knowledge 3.C.3: Viral replication results in genetic variation, and viral infection can introduce genetic variation into the hosts.

LO 3.29: The student is able to construct an explanation of how viruses introduce genetic variation in host organisms. [See SP 6.2]

LO 3.30: The student is able to use representations and appropriate models to describe how viral replication introduces genetic variation in the viral population. [See SP 1.4]
Big Idea 4: Biological systems interact, and these systems and their interactions possess complex properties.

Enduring Understanding 4.A: Interactions within biological systems lead to complex properties.

Essential Knowledge 4.A.1: The subcomponents of biological molecules and their sequence determine the properties of that molecule.

LO 4.1: The student is able to explain the connection between the sequence and the subcomponents of a biological polymer and its properties. [See SP 7.1]

LO 4.2: The student is able to refine representations and models to explain how the subcomponents of a biological polymer and their sequence determine the properties of that polymer. [See SP 1.3]

LO 4.3: The student is able to use models to predict and justify that changes in the subcomponents of a biological polymer affect the functionality of the molecule. [See SP 6.1, 6.4]
Essential Knowledge 4.A.2: The structure and function of subcellular components, and their interactions, provide essential cellular processes.

LO 4.5: The student is able to make a prediction about the interactions of subcellular organelles. [See SP 6.4]

LO 4.6: The student is able to construct explanations based on scientific evidence as to how interactions of subcellular structures provide essential functions. [See SP 6.2]

LO 4.7: The student is able to use representations and models to analyze situations qualitatively to describe how interactions of subcellular structures, which possess specialized functions, provide essential functions. [See SP 1.4]
Enduring Understanding 4.C: Naturally occurring diversity among and between components within biological systems affects interactions with the environment.

Essential Knowledge 4.C.1: Variation in molecular units provides cells with a wider range of functions.

LO 4.22: The student is able to construct explanations based on evidence of how variation in molecular units provides cells with a wider range of functions. [See SP 6.2]
Unit 4: Development and Genetic Regulation
Big Idea 2: Biological systems utilize free energy and molecular building blocks to grow, to reproduce and to maintain dynamic homeostasis.
Enduring Understanding 2.C: Organisms use feedback mechanisms to regulate growth and reproduction, and to maintain dynamic homeostasis.

Essential Knowledge 2.C.1: Organisms use feedback mechanisms to maintain their internal environments and respond to external environmental changes.

LO 2.15: The student can justify a claim made about the effect(s) on a biological
system at the molecular, physiological or organismal level when given a scenario
in which one or more components within a negative regulatory system is altered.
[See SP 6.1]

Enduring Understanding 2.E: Many biological processes involved in growth, reproduction and dynamic homeostasis include temporal regulation and coordination.

Essential Knowledge 2.E.1: Timing and coordination of specific events are necessary for the normal development of an organism, and these events are regulated by a variety of mechanisms.

LO 2.31: The student can connect concepts in and across domains to show that timing and coordination of specific events are necessary for normal development in an organism and that these events are regulated by multiple mechanisms. [See SP 7.2]

LO 2.32: The student is able to use a graph or diagram to analyze situations or solve problems (quantitatively or qualitatively) that involve timing and coordination of events necessary for normal development in an organism. [See SP 1.4]

LO 2.33: The student is able to justify scientific claims with scientific evidence to show that timing and coordination of several events are necessary for normal development in an organism and that these events are regulated by multiple mechanisms. [See SP 6.1]

LO 2.34: The student is able to describe the role of programmed cell death in development and differentiation, the reuse of molecules, and the maintenance of dynamic homeostasis. [See SP 7.1]
Big Idea 3: Living systems store, retrieve, transmit and respond to information essential to life processes.

Enduring Understanding 3.B: Expression of genetic information involves cellular and molecular mechanisms.

Essential Knowledge 3.B.1: Gene regulation results in differential gene expression, leading to cell specialization.

LO 3.18: The student is able to describe the connection between the regulation of gene expression and observed differences between different kinds of organisms. [See SP 7.1]

LO 3.19: The student is able to describe the connection between the regulation of gene expression and observed differences between individuals in a population. [See SP 7.1]

LO 3.20: The student is able to explain how the regulation of gene expression is essential for the processes and structures that support efficient cell function. [See SP 6.2]

LO 3.21: The student can use representations to describe how gene regulation influences cell products and function. [See SP 1.4]
Essential Knowledge 3.B.2: A variety of intercellular and intracellular signal transmissions mediate gene expression.

LO 3.22: The student is able to explain how signal pathways mediate gene expression, including how this process can affect protein production. [See SP 6.2]

LO 3.23: The student can use representations to describe mechanisms of the regulation of gene expression. [See SP 1.4]
Enduring Understanding 3.D: Cells communicate by generating, transmitting and receiving chemical signals.

Essential Knowledge 3.D.1: Cell communication processes share common features that reflect a shared evolutionary history.

LO 3.31: The student is able to describe basic chemical processes for cell communication shared across evolutionary lines of descent. [See SP 7.2]

LO 3.32: The student is able to generate scientific questions involving cell communication as it relates to the process of evolution. [See SP 3.1]

LO 3.33: The student is able to use representation(s) and appropriate models to describe features of a cell signaling pathway. [See SP 1.4]
Essential Knowledge 3.D.2: Cells communicate with each other through direct contact with other cells or from a distance via chemical signaling.

LO 3.34: The student is able to construct explanations of cell communication through cell-to-cell direct contact or through chemical signaling. [See SP 6.2]

Essential Knowledge 3.D.3: Signal transduction pathways link signal reception with cellular response.

LO 3.36: The student is able to describe a model that expresses the key elements of signal transduction pathways by which a signal is converted to a cellular response. [See SP 1.5]

Essential Knowledge 3.D.4: Changes in signal transduction pathways can alter cellular response.

LO 3.37: The student is able to justify claims based on scientific evidence that changes in signal transduction pathways can alter cellular response. [See SP 6.1]

LO 3.38: The student is able to describe a model that expresses key elements to show how change in signal transduction can alter cellular response. [See SP 1.5]

Big Idea 4: Biological systems interact, and these systems and their interactions possess complex properties.

Enduring Understanding 4.A: Interactions within biological systems lead to complex properties.

Essential Knowledge 4.A.3: Interactions between external stimuli and regulated gene expression result in specialization of cells, tissues
and organs.

LO 4.7: The student is able to refine representations to illustrate how interactions between external stimuli and gene expression result in specialization of cells, tissues and organs. [See SP 1.3]
Unit 5: Cells and Homeostasis
Big Idea 1: The process of evolution drives the diversity and unity of life.
Enduring Understanding 1.B: Organisms are linked by lines of descent from common ancestry.

Essential Knowledge 1.B.1: Organisms share many conserved core processes and features that evolved and are widely distributed among organisms today.

LO 1.15: The student is able to describe specific examples of conserved core biological processes and features shared by all domains or within one domain of life, and how these shared, conserved core processes and features support the concept of common ancestry for all organisms. [See SP 7.2]

LO 1.16: The student is able to justify the scientific claim that organisms share many conserved core processes and features that evolved and are widely distributed among organisms today. [See SP 6.1]
Big Idea 2: Biological systems utilize free energy and molecular building blocks to grow, to reproduce and to maintain dynamic homeostasis.
Enduring Understanding 2.A: Growth, reproduction and maintenance of the organization of living systems require free energy and matter.
Essential Knowledge 2.A.3: Organisms must exchange matter with the environment to grow, reproduce and maintain organization.

LO 2.6: The student is able to use calculated surface area-to-volume ratios to predict which cell(s) might eliminate wastes or procure nutrients faster by diffusion. [See SP 2.2]

LO 2.7: Students will be able to explain how cell size and shape affect the overall rate of nutrient intake and the rate of waste elimination. [See SP 6.2]

Enduring Understanding 2.B: Growth, reproduction and dynamic homeostasis require that cells create and maintain internal environments that are different from their external environments.

Essential Knowledge 2.B.1: Cell membranes are selectively permeable due to their structure.

LO 2.10: The student is able to use representations and models to pose scientific questions about the properties of cell membranes and selective permeability based on molecular structure. [See SP 1.4, 3.1]

LO 2.11: The student is able to construct models that connect the movement of molecules across membranes with membrane structure and function. [See SP 1.1, 7.1, 7.2]

Essential Knowledge 2.B.2: Growth and dynamic homeostasis are maintained by the constant movement of molecules across membranes.

LO 2.12: The student is able to use representations and models to analyze situations or solve problems qualitatively and quantitatively to investigate whether dynamic homeostasis is maintained by the active movement of molecules across membranes. [See SP 1.4]

Essential Knowledge 2.B.3: Eukaryotic cells maintain internal membranes that partition the cell into specialized regions.

LO 2.13: The student is able to explain how internal membranes and organelles contribute to cell functions. [See SP 6.2]

LO 2.14: The student is able to use representations and models to describe differences in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. [See SP 1.2, 1.4]

Big Idea 3: Living systems store, retrieve, transmit and respond to information essential to life processes.

Enduring Understanding 3.D: Cells communicate by generating, transmitting and receiving chemical signals.

Essential Knowledge 3.D.2: Cells communicate with each other through direct contact with other cells or from a distance via chemical signaling.

LO 3.34: The student is able to construct explanations of cell communication through cell-to-cell direct contact or through chemical signaling. [See SP 6.2]

LO 3.35: The student is able to create representation(s) that depict how cell-to-cell communication occurs by direct contact or from a distance through chemical signaling. [See SP 1.1]

Big Idea 4: Biological systems interact, and these systems and their interactions possess complex properties.

Enduring Understanding 4.A: Interactions within biological systems lead to complex properties.

Essential Knowledge 4.A.2: The structure and function of subcellular components, and their interactions, provide essential cellular processes.

LO 4.4: The student is able to make a prediction about the interactions of subcellular organelles. [See SP 6.4]

LO 4.5: The student is able to construct explanations based on scientific evidence as to how interactions of subcellular structures provide essential functions. [See SP 6.2]

LO 4.6: The student is able to use representations and models to analyze situations qualitatively to describe how interactions of subcellular structures, which possess specialized functions, provide essential functions. [See SP 1.4]
Enduring Understanding 4.B: Competition and cooperation are important aspects of biological systems.

Essential Knowledge 4.B.1: Interactions between molecules affect their structure and function.

LO 4.17: The student is able to analyze data to identify how molecular interactions affect structure and function. [See SP 5.1]

Essential Knowledge 4.B.2: Cooperative interactions within organisms promote efficiency in the use of energy and matter.

LO 4.18: The student is able to use representations and models to analyze how cooperative interactions within organisms promote efficiency in the use of energy and matter. [See SP 1.4]

Enduring Understanding 4.C: Naturally occurring diversity among and between components within biological systems affects interactions with the environment.
Essential Knowledge 4.C.1: Variation in molecular units provides cells with a wider range of functions.

LO 4.22: The student is able to construct explanations based on evidence of how variation in molecular units provides cells with a wider range of functions. [See SP 6.2]
Unit 6: Body Systems and Homeostasis
Big Idea 1: The process of evolution drives the diversity and unity of life.
Enduring Understanding 1.C: Life continues to evolve within a changing environment.

Essential Knowledge 1.C.3: Populations of organisms continue to evolve.

LO 1.25: The student is able to describe a model that represents evolution within a population. [See SP 1.2]
Big Idea 2: Biological systems utilize free energy and molecular building blocks to grow, to reproduce and to maintain dynamic homeostasis.
Enduring Understanding 2.C: Organisms use feedback mechanisms to regulate growth and reproduction, and to maintain dynamic homeostasis.

Essential Knowledge 2.C.1: Organisms use feedback mechanisms to maintain their internal environments and respond to external environmental changes.

LO 2.15: The student can justify a claim made about the effect(s) on a biological
system at the molecular, physiological or organismal level when given a scenario
in which one or more components within a negative regulatory system is altered.
[See SP 6.1]

LO 2.16: The student is able to connect how organisms use negative feedback to maintain their internal environments. [See SP 7.2]

LO 2.17: The student is able to evaluate data that show the effect(s) of changes in concentrations of key molecules on negative feedback mechanisms. [See SP 5.3]

LO 2.18: The student can make predictions about how organisms use negative feedback mechanisms to maintain their internal environments. [See SP 6.4]

LO 2.19: The student is able to make predictions about how positive feedback mechanisms amplify activities and processes in organisms based on scientific theories and models. [See SP 6.4]

LO 2.20: The student is able to justify that positive feedback mechanisms amplify responses in organisms. [See SP 6.1]

Enduring Understanding 2.D: Growth and dynamic homeostasis of a biological system are influenced by changes in the system’s environment.

Essential Knowledge 2.D.2: Homeostatic mechanisms reflect both common ancestry and divergence due to adaptation in different environments.

LO 2.25: The student can construct explanations based on scientific evidence that homeostatic mechanisms reflect continuity due to common ancestry and/or divergence due to adaptation in different environments. [See SP 6.2]

LO 2.26: The student is able to analyze data to identify phylogenetic patterns or relationships, showing that homeostatic mechanisms reflect both continuity due to common ancestry and change due to evolution in different environments.

LO 2.27: The student is able to connect differences in the environment with the evolution of homeostatic mechanisms. [See SP 7.1]

Essential Knowledge 2.D.3: Biological systems are affected by disruptions to their dynamic homeostasis.

LO 2.28: The student is able to use representations or models to analyze quantitatively and qualitatively the effects of disruptions to dynamic homeostasis in biological systems. [See SP 1.4]

Essential Knowledge 2.D.4: Plants and animals have a variety of chemical defenses against infections that affect dynamic homeostasis.

LO 2.29: The student can create representations and models to describe immune responses. [See SP 1.1, 1.2]

LO 2.30: The student can create representations or models to describe nonspecific immune defenses in plants and animals. [See SP 1.1, 1.2]

LO 2.43: The student is able to connect the concept of cell communication to the functioning of the immune system. [See SP 7.2]

Big Idea 3: Living systems store, retrieve, transmit and respond to information essential to life processes.

Enduring Understanding 3.D: Cells communicate by generating, transmitting and receiving chemical signals.

Essential Knowledge 3.D.2: Cells communicate with each other through direct contact with other cells or from a distance via chemical signaling.

LO 3.34: The student is able to construct explanations of cell communication through cell-to-cell direct contact or through chemical signaling. [See SP 6.2]

LO 3.35: The student is able to create representation(s) that depict how cell-to-cell communication occurs by direct contact or from a distance through chemical signaling. [See SP 1.1]

Essential Knowledge 3.D.4: Changes in signal transduction pathways can alter cellular response.

LO 3.37: The student is able to justify claims based on scientific evidence that changes in signal transduction pathways can alter cellular response. [See SP 6.1]

LO 3.38: The student is able to describe a model that expresses key elements to show how change in signal transduction can alter cellular response. [See SP 1.5]

LO 3.39: The student is able to construct an explanation of how certain drugs affect signal reception and, consequently, signal transduction pathways. [See SP 6.2]

Enduring Understanding 3.E: Transmission of information results in changes within and between biological systems.

Essential Knowledge 3.E.2: Animals have nervous systems that detect external and internal signals, transmit and integrate information, and produce responses.

LO 3.43: The student is able to construct an explanation, based on scientific theories and models, about how nervous systems detect external and internal signals, transmit and integrate information, and produce responses. [See SP 6.2, 7.1]

LO 3.44: The student is able to describe how nervous systems detect external and internal signals. [See SP 1.2]

LO 3.45: The student is able to describe how nervous systems transmit information. [See SP 1.2]

LO 3.46: The student is able to describe how the vertebrate brain integrates information to produce a response. [See SP 1.2]

LO 3.47: The student is able to create a visual representation of complex nervous systems to describe/explain how these systems detect external and internal signals, transmit and integrate information, and produce responses. [See SP 1.1]

LO 3.48: The student is able to create a visual representation to describe how nervous systems detect external and internal signals. [See SP 1.1]

LO 3.49: The student is able to create a visual representation to describe how nervous systems transmit information. [See SP 1.1]

LO 3.50: The student is able to create a visual representation to describe how the vertebrate brain integrates information to produce a response. [See SP 1.1]

Big Idea 4: Biological systems interact, and these systems and their interactions possess complex properties.

Enduring Understanding 4.A: Interactions within biological systems lead to complex properties.

Essential Knowledge 4.A.4: Organisms exhibit complex properties due to interactions between their constituent parts.

LO 4.8: The student is able to evaluate scientific questions concerning organisms that exhibit complex properties due to the interaction of their constituent parts. [See SP 3.3]

LO 4.9: The student is able to predict the effects of a change in a component(s) of a biological system on the functionality of an organism(s). [See SP 6.4]

LO 4.10: The student is able to refine representations and models to illustrate biocomplexity due to interactions of the constituent parts. [See SP 1.3]

Enduring Understanding 4.B: Competition and cooperation are important aspects of biological systems.

Essential Knowledge 4.B.2: Cooperative interactions within organisms promote efficiency in the use of energy and matter.

LO 4.18: The student is able to use representations and models to analyze how cooperative interactions within organisms promote efficiency in the use of energy and matter. [See SP 1.4]
Enduring Understanding 4.C: Naturally occurring diversity among and between components within biological systems affects interactions with the environment.
Essential Knowledge 4.C.1: Variation in molecular units provides cells with a wider range of functions.

LO 4.22: The student is able to construct explanations based on evidence of how variation in molecular units provides cells with a wider range of functions. [See SP 6.2]
Unit 7: Energy
Big Idea 2: Biological systems utilize free energy and molecular building blocks to grow, to reproduce and to maintain dynamic homeostasis.
Enduring Understanding 2.A: Growth, reproduction and maintenance of the organization of living systems require free energy and matter.
Essential Knowledge 2.A.1: All living systems require constant input of free energy.

LO 2.1: The student is able to explain how biological systems use free energy based on empirical data that all organisms require constant energy input to maintain organization, to grow and to reproduce. [See SP 6.2]

LO 2.2: The student is able to justify a scientific claim that free energy is required for living systems to maintain organization, to grow or to reproduce, but that multiple strategies for obtaining and using energy exist in different living systems. [See SP 6.1]

LO 2.3: The student is able to predict how changes in free energy availability affect organisms, populations and/or ecosystems. [See SP 6.4]

Essential Knowledge 2.A.2: Organisms capture and store free energy for use in biological processes.

LO 2.4: The student is able to use representations to pose scientific questions about what mechanisms and structural features allow organisms to capture, store and use free energy. [See SP 1.4, 3.1]

LO 2.5: The student is able to construct explanations of the mechanisms and structural features of cells that allow organisms to capture, store or use free energy. [See SP 6.2]

LO 2.41: The student is able to evaluate data to show the relationship between photosynthesis and respiration in the flow of free energy through a system. [See SP 5.3, 7.1]

Big Idea 4: Biological systems interact, and these systems and their interactions possess complex properties.

Enduring Understanding 4.A: Interactions within biological systems lead to complex properties.

Essential Knowledge 4.A.2: The structure and function of subcellular components, and their interactions, provide essential cellular processes.

LO 4.4: The student is able to make a prediction about the interactions of subcellular organelles. [See SP 6.4]

LO 4.5: The student is able to construct explanations based on scientific evidence as to how interactions of subcellular structures provide essential functions. [See SP 6.2]

LO 4.6: The student is able to use representations and models to analyze situations qualitatively to describe how interactions of subcellular structures, which possess specialized functions, provide essential functions. [See SP 1.4]

Unit 8: Ecology
Big Idea 2: Biological systems utilize free energy and molecular building blocks to grow, to reproduce and to maintain dynamic homeostasis.
Enduring Understanding 2.A: Growth, reproduction and maintenance of the organization of living systems require free energy and matter.
Essential Knowledge 2.A.1: All living systems require constant input of free energy.

LO 2.1: The student is able to explain how biological systems use free energy based on empirical data that all organisms require constant energy input to maintain organization, to grow and to reproduce. [See SP 6.2]

LO 2.2: The student is able to justify a scientific claim that free energy is required for living systems to maintain organization, to grow or to reproduce, but that multiple strategies for obtaining and using energy exist in different living systems. [See SP 6.1]

LO 2.3: The student is able to predict how changes in free energy availability affect organisms, populations and/or ecosystems. [See SP 6.4]

Essential Knowledge 2.A.2: Organisms capture and store free energy for use in biological processes.

LO 2.41: The student is able to evaluate data to show the relationship between photosynthesis and respiration in the flow of free energy through a system. [See SP 5.3, 7.1]

Essential Knowledge 2.A.3: Organisms must exchange matter with the environment to grow, reproduce and maintain organization.

LO 2.8: The student is able to justify the selection of data regarding the types of molecules that an animal, plant or bacterium will take up as necessary building blocks and excrete as waste products. [See SP 4.1]

LO 2.9: The student is able to represent graphically or model quantitatively the exchange of molecules between an organism and its environment, and the subsequent use of these molecules to build new molecules that facilitate dynamic homeostasis, growth and reproduction. [See SP 1.1, 1.4]

Enduring Understanding 2.C: Organisms use feedback mechanisms to regulate growth and reproduction, and to maintain dynamic homeostasis.
Essential Knowledge 2.C.2: Organisms respond to changes in their external environments.

LO 2.21: The student is able to justify the selection of the kind of data needed to answer scientific questions about the relevant mechanism that organisms use to respond to changes in their external environment. [See SP 4.1]

LO 2.42: The student is able to pose a scientific question concerning the behavioral or physiological response of an organism to a change in its environment. [See SP 3.1]

Enduring Understanding 2.D: Growth and dynamic homeostasis of a biological system are influenced by changes in the system’s environment.

Essential Knowledge 2.D.1: All biological systems from cells and organisms to populations, communities and ecosystems are affected by complex biotic and abiotic interactions involving exchange of matter and free energy.

LO 2.22: The student is able to refine scientific models and questions about the effect of complex biotic and abiotic interactions on all biological systems, from cells and organisms to populations, communities and ecosystems. [See SP 1.3, 3.2]

LO 2.23: The student is able to design a plan for collecting data to show that all biological systems (cells, organisms, populations, communities and ecosystems) are affected by complex biotic and abiotic interactions. [See SP 4.2, 7.2]

LO 2.24: The student is able to analyze data to identify possible patterns and relationships between a biotic or abiotic factor and a biological system (cells, organisms, populations, communities or ecosystems). [See SP 5.1]

Essential Knowledge 2.D.3: Biological systems are affected by disruptions to their dynamic homeostasis.

LO 2.28: The student is able to use representations or models to analyze quantitatively and qualitatively the effects of disruptions to dynamic homeostasis in biological systems. [See SP 1.4]

Enduring Understanding 2.E: Many biological processes involved in growth, reproduction and dynamic homeostasis include temporal regulation and coordination.

Essential Knowledge 2.E.2: Timing and coordination of physiological events are regulated by multiple mechanisms.

LO 2.35: The student is able to design a plan for collecting data to support the scientific claim that the timing and coordination of physiological events involve regulation. [See SP 4.2]

LO 2.36: The student is able to justify scientific claims with evidence to show how timing and coordination of physiological events involve regulation. [See SP 6.1]

LO 2.37: The student is able to connect concepts that describe mechanisms that regulate the timing and coordination of physiological events. [See SP 7.2]

Essential Knowledge 2.E.3: Timing and coordination of behavior are regulated by various mechanisms and are important in natural selection.

LO 2.38: The student is able to analyze data to support the claim that responses to information and communication of information affect natural selection. [See SP 5.1]

LO 2.39: The student is able to justify scientific claims, using evidence, to describe how timing and coordination of behavioral events in organisms are regulated by several mechanisms. [See SP 6.1]

LO 2.40: The student is able to connect concepts in and across domain(s) to predict how environmental factors affect responses to information and change behavior. [See SP 7.2]

Big Idea 3: Living systems store, retrieve, transmit and respond to information essential to life processes.

Enduring Understanding 3.B: Expression of genetic information involves cellular and molecular mechanisms.

Essential Knowledge 3.B.2: A variety of intercellular and intracellular signal transmissions mediate gene expression.

LO 3.22: The student is able to explain how signal pathways mediate gene expression, including how this process can affect protein production. [See SP 6.2]

LO 3.23: The student can use representations to describe mechanisms of the regulation of gene expression. [See SP 1.4]

Enduring Understanding 3.D: Cells communicate by generating, transmitting and receiving chemical signals.

Essential Knowledge 3.D.1: Cell communication processes share common features that reflect a shared evolutionary history.

LO 3.33: The student is able to use representation(s) and appropriate models to describe features of a cell signaling pathway. [See SP 1.4]

Essential Knowledge 3.D.2: Cells communicate with each other through direct contact with other cells or from a distance via chemical signaling.

LO 3.34: The student is able to construct explanations of cell communication through cell-to-cell direct contact or through chemical signaling. [See SP 6.2]

LO 3.35: The student is able to create representation(s) that depict how cell-to-cell communication occurs by direct contact or from a distance through chemical signaling. [See SP 1.1]

Enduring Understanding 3.E: Transmission of information results in changes within and between biological systems.

Essential Knowledge 3.E.1: Individuals can act on information and communicate it to others.

LO 3.40: The student is able to analyze data that indicate how organisms exchange information in response to internal changes and external cues, and which can change behavior. [See SP 5.1]

LO 3.41: The student is able to create a representation that describes how organisms exchange information in response to internal changes and external cues, and which can result in changes in behavior. [See SP 1.1]

LO 3.42: The student is able to describe how organisms exchange information in response to internal changes or environmental cues. [See SP 7.1]

Big Idea 4: Biological systems interact, and these systems and their interactions possess complex properties.

Enduring Understanding 4.A: Interactions within biological systems lead to complex properties.

Essential Knowledge 4.A.5: Communities are composed of populations of organisms that interact in complex ways.

LO 4.11: The student is able to justify the selection of the kind of data needed to answer scientific questions about the interaction of populations within communities. [See SP 1.4, 4.1]

LO 4.12: The student is able to apply mathematical routines to quantities that describe communities composed of populations of organisms that interact in complex ways. [See SP 2.2]

LO 4.13: The student is able to predict the effects of a change in the community’s populations on the community. [See SP 6.4]

Essential Knowledge 4.A.6: Interactions among living systems and with their environment result in the movement of matter and energy.

LO 4.14: The student is able to apply mathematical routines to quantities that describe interactions among living systems and their environment, which result in the movement of matter and energy. [See SP 2.2]

LO 4.15: The student is able to use visual representations to analyze situations or solve problems qualitatively to illustrate how interactions among living systems and with their environment result in the movement of matter and energy. [See SP 1.4]

LO 4.16: The student is able to predict the effects of a change of matter or energy availability on communities. [See SP 6.4]

Enduring Understanding 4.B: Competition and cooperation are important aspects of biological systems.

Essential Knowledge 4.B.3: Interactions between and within populations influence patterns of species distribution and abundance.

LO 4.19: The student is able to use data analysis to refine observations and measurements regarding the effect of population interactions on patterns of species distribution and abundance. [See SP 2.2, 5.2]

Essential Knowledge 4.B.4: Distribution of local and global ecosystems changes over time.

LO 4.20: The student is able to explain how the distribution of ecosystems changes over time by identifying large-scale events that have resulted in these changes in the past. [See SP 6.2, 6.3]

LO 4.21: The student is able to predict consequences of human actions on both local and global ecosystems. [See SP 6.4]

Enduring Understanding 4.C: Naturally occurring diversity among and between components within biological systems affects interactions with the environment.

Essential Knowledge 4.C.2: Environmental factors influence the expression of the genotype in an organism.

LO 4.23: The student is able to construct explanations of the influence of environmental factors on the phenotype of an organism. [See SP 6.2]

LO 4.24: The student is able to predict the effects of a change in an environmental factor on the gene expression and the resulting phenotype of an organism. [See SP 6.4]

Essential Knowledge 4.C.3: The level of variation in a population affects population dynamics.

LO 4.26: The student is able to use theories and models to make scientific claims and/or predictions about the effects of variation within populations on survival and fitness. [See SP 6.4]

Essential Knowledge 4.C.4: The diversity of species within an ecosystem may influence the stability of the ecosystem.

LO 4.27: The student is able to make scientific claims and predictions about how species diversity within an ecosystem influences ecosystem stability. [See SP 6.4]

CCSS
English Language Arts Standards » Speaking & Listening » Grade 11-12

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.11-12.1: Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 11-12 topics, texts, and issues, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.11-12.4: Present information, findings, and supporting evidence, conveying a clear and distinct perspective, such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning, alternative or opposing perspectives are addressed, and the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and a range of formal and informal tasks.
English Language Arts Standards » Writing » Grade 11-12
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST.11-12.1.A
Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s), establish the significance of the claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that logically sequences the claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST.11-12.1.B
Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant data and evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both claim(s) and counterclaims in a discipline-appropriate form that anticipates the audience's knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST.11-12.7
Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.

Formal and Informal Labs
• CollegeBoard Core Laboratory Investigations (CCLI)
• Argument-Driven Inquiry in Biology (ADIB)
Quarter Cycle
Unit
Formal Labs
Informal Labs
1
Unit 1: Evolution
• Lab 1: Artificial Selection (Brine Shrimp or Madagascar Hissing Cockroach Alternative) (CCLI)

• Lab 2: Mathematical Modeling: Hardy-Weinberg (Radford Population Genetics Simulation Program Alternative) (CCLI)
• Lab 3: Comparing DNA Sequences to Understand Evolutionary Relationships with BLAST (CCLI)
• Mechanisms of Evolution: Why Will the Characteristics of a Bug Population Change in Various Ways in Response to Different Types of Predation? (ADIB)
• Biodiversity and the Fossil Record: How Has Biodiversity on Earth Changed Over Time? (ADIB)
• Mechanisms of Speciation: Why Does Geographic Isolation Lead to the Formation of a New Species? (ADIB)
• Human Evolution: How Are Humans Related to Other Members of the Family Hominidae? (ADIB)
Unit 2: Biochemistry and Abiogenesis

Unit 3: Reproduction and Inheritance

• Lab 7: Cell Division: Mitosis and Meiosis (CCLI)
2
Unit 3: Reproduction and Inheritance
• Lab 9: Biotechnology: Restriction Enzyme Analysis of DNA (CCLI)
• DNA Structure: What Is the Structure of DNA? (ADIB)
• Models of Inheritance: Which Model of Inheritance Best Explains How a Specific Trait Is Inherited in Fruit Flies? (ADIB)
• Mendelian Genetics: Why Are the Stem and Leaf Color Traits of the Wisconsin Fast Plant Inherited in a Predictable Pattern? (ADIB)
• Meiosis: How Does the Process of Meiosis Reduce the Number of Chromosomes in Reproductive Cells? (ADIB)
• Inheritance of Blood Type: Are All of Mr. Johnson’s Children His Biological Offspring? (ADIB)
Unit 4: Development and Genetic Regulation

• Lab 8: Biotechnology: Bacterial Transformation (CCLI)
• Chromosomes and Karyotypes: How Do Two Physically Healthy Parents Produce One Child with Down Syndrome and a Second Child with Cri Du Chat Syndrome? (ADIB)
3

Unit 5: Cells and Homeostasis
• Lab 13: Enzyme Activity (CCLI)
• Lab 4: Diffusion and Osmosis (CCLI)
• Enzymes: How Do Changes in Temperature and pH Levels Affect Enzyme Activity? (ADIB)
• Osmosis and Diffusion: Why Do Red Blood Cells Appear Bigger After Being Exposed to Distilled Water? (ADIB)
Unit 6: Body Systems and Homeostasis

• Descent with Modification: Does Mammalian Brain Structure Support or Refute the Theory of Descent with Modification? (ADIB)
4
Unit 6: Body Systems and Homeostasis

Unit 7: Energy
• Lab 5: Photosynthesis (CCLI)
• Lab 6: Cellular Respiration (CCLI)
• Cellular Respiration: How Does the Type of Food Source Affect the Rate of Cellular Respiration in Yeast? (ADIB)

• Lab 10: Energy Dynamics (Owl Pellet Lab Alternative) (CCLI)
• Lab 12: Fruit Fly Behavior (CCLI)
• Population Growth: How Do Changes in the Amount and Nature of the Plant Life Available in an Ecosystem Influence Herbivore Population Growth Over Time? (ADIB)
• Predator-Prey Population Size Relationships: Which Factors Affect the Stability of a Predator-Prey Population Size Relationship? (ADIB)
• Ecosystems and Biodiversity: How Does Food Web Complexity Affect the Biodiversity of an Ecosystem? (ADIB)
• Explanations for Animal Behavior: Why Do Great White Sharks Travel Over Long Distances? (ADIB)
• Environmental Influences on Animal Behavior: How Has Climate Change Affected Bird Migration? (ADIB)
• Competition for Resources: How Has the Spread of the Eurasian Collared-Dove Affected Different Populations of Native Bird Species? (ADIB)
• Interdependence of Organisms: Why Is the Sport Fish Population of Lake Grace Decreasing in Size? (ADIB)

POGIL Activities
• POGIL Activities for AP Biology
Quarter Cycle
Unit
POGIL Activity Name
1
Unit 1: Evolution
• Selection and Speciation
• Phylogenetic Trees
• The Hardy-Weinberg Equation
• Mass Extinctions
Unit 2: Biochemistry and Abiogenesis
• Biochemistry Basics

Unit 3: Reproduction and Inheritance
• Cell Cycle Regulation
2
Unit 3: Reproduction and Inheritance
• Protein Structure
• Gene Expression—Transcription
• Gene Expression—Translation
• Genetic Mutations
• The Statistics of Inheritance
• Chi-Square
Unit 4: Development and Genetic Regulation
• Cellular Communication
• Signal Transduction Pathways
• Control of Gene Expression in Prokaryotes
3

Unit 5: Cells and Homeostasis
• Membrane Structure
• Membrane Function
• Enzymes and Cellular Regulation
Unit 6: Body Systems and Homeostasis
• Feedback Mechanisms
• Control of Blood Sugar Levels
4
Unit 6: Body Systems and Homeostasis
• Neuron Structure
• Neuron Function
• Immunity
Unit 7: Energy
• Free Energy
• ATP—The Free Energy Carrier
• Cellular Respiration—An Overview
• Glycolysis and the Krebs Cycle
• Oxidative Phosphorylation
• Photosynthesis

Unit 8: Ecology
• Global Climate Change
• Eutrophication
• Plant Hormones

FRQ – Long Response Practice
Quarter Cycle
Unit
1
Unit 1: Evolution
2
Unit 3: Reproduction and Inheritance
3
Unit 5: Cells and Homeostasis
4
Unit 7: Energy


The Windfall Elimination Provision was one of the many legislative changes included in the Social Security Amendments of 1983 (Public Law 98&ndash21 ). Major provisions of this legislation included gradually raising the retirement age and making a portion of Social Security benefits received by higher income beneficiaries subject to income taxes. The amendments also provided for mandatory Social Security coverage of newly hired federal employees and current and future employees of nonprofit organizations (Svahn and Ross 1983, 24&ndash27 ).

Prior to Congressional action, the issue of windfall benefits payable to persons with noncovered employment was considered in two bipartisan national Social Security study commissions. The National Commission on Social Security issued its report on March 12, 1981. One of its recommendations was that "the windfall portion of benefits arising from periods of noncovered government employment in the future (due to the weighted benefit formula) should be eliminated" (National Commission on Social Security 1981, 26).

After further action in both the House of Representatives and Senate, the conference committee agreement substituted 40 percent for 32 percent as the percentage applicable to the first bendpoint, provided for the 5 year phase-in period, and exempted newly covered employees and those with 30 years of covered work (Committee on Ways and Means 1983, 121). These WEP provisions were included in the legislation signed by President Ronald Reagan on April 21, 1983.


Kubelet.service fail to start up #54542

Is this a BUG REPORT or FEATURE REQUEST?:

What happened:
kubelet.service fail to start up

What you expected to happen:
kubelet.service start up success

How to reproduce it (as minimally and precisely as possible):

Anything else we need to know?:
kubelet.service file

kubelet.service config file

Environment:

  • Kubernetes version: 1.8.0
  • Cloud provider or hardware configuration**: 1G 20G
  • OS (e.g. from /etc/os-release):CentOS7 1708
  • Kernel (e.g. uname -a ): Linux test-node1 3.10.0-693.2.2.el7.x86_64 #1 SMP Tue Sep 12 22:26:13 UTC 2017 x86_64 x86_64 x86_64 GNU/Linux
  • Install tools: binnary
  • Others:

The text was updated successfully, but these errors were encountered:

We are unable to convert the task to an issue at this time. Please try again.

The issue was successfully created but we are unable to update the comment at this time.

Yeaheo commented Oct 25, 2017

kubelet service fail to start up ,I dont konw how to resolve it ,

Php-coder commented Oct 25, 2017

Darrylsepeda commented Oct 25, 2017

I also have the same issue when the kubelet always show error status 1/FAILURE

is there any way to trace what makes this error?
or maybe is there any way to fix it?

Grodrigues3 commented Oct 25, 2017

Hzxuzhonghu commented Oct 26, 2017

show logs related to kubelet use journalctl

Chinni505 commented Nov 2, 2017

Nov 02 15:12:12 kubernetes-master kubelet[2313]: I1102 15:12:12.324007 2313 controller.go:114] kubelet config controller: starting controller
Nov 02 15:12:12 kubernetes-master kubelet[2313]: I1102 15:12:12.323899 2313 feature_gate.go:156] feature gates: map[]
Nov 02 15:12:12 kubernetes-master systemd[1]: Starting kubelet: The Kubernetes Node Agent.
Nov 02 15:12:12 kubernetes-master systemd[1]: Started kubelet: The Kubernetes Node Agent.
Nov 02 15:12:12 kubernetes-master systemd[1]: kubelet.service holdoff time over, scheduling restart.
Nov 02 15:12:02 kubernetes-master systemd[1]: kubelet.service failed.
Nov 02 15:12:02 kubernetes-master systemd[1]: Unit kubelet.service entered failed state.
Nov 02 15:12:02 kubernetes-master systemd[1]: kubelet.service: main process exited, code=exited, status=1/FAILURE
Nov 02 15:12:02 kubernetes-master kubelet[2308]: error: unable to load client CA file /etc/kubernetes/pki/ca.crt: open /etc/kubernetes/pki/ca.crt: no such file or directory
Nov 02 15:12:02 kubernetes-master kubelet[2308]: I1102 15:12:02.076525 2308 controller.go:118] kubelet config controller: validating combination of defaults and flags
Nov 02 15:12:02 kubernetes-master kubelet[2308]: I1102 15:12:02.076519 2308 controller.go:114] kubelet config controller: starting controller
Nov 02 15:12:02 kubernetes-master kubelet[2308]: I1102 15:12:02.076409 2308 feature_gate.go:156] feature gates: map[]
Nov 02 15:12:01 kubernetes-master systemd[1]: Starting kubelet: The Kubernetes Node Agent.
Nov 02 15:12:01 kubernetes-master systemd[1]: Started kubelet: The Kubernetes Node Agent.
Nov 02 15:12:01 kubernetes-master systemd[1]: kubelet.service holdoff time over, scheduling restart.
Nov 02 15:11:51 kubernetes-master systemd[1]: kubelet.service failed.
Nov 02 15:11:51 kubernetes-master systemd[1]: Unit kubelet.service entered failed state.
Nov 02 15:11:51 kubernetes-master systemd[1]: kubelet.service: main process exited, code=exited, status=1/FAILURE
Nov 02 15:11:51 kubernetes-master kubelet[2303]: error: unable to load client CA file /etc/kubernetes/pki/ca.crt: open /etc/kubernetes/pki/ca.crt: no such file or directory
Nov 02 15:11:51 kubernetes-master kubelet[2303]: I1102 15:11:51.831530 2303 controller.go:118] kubelet config controller: validating combination of defaults and flags
Nov 02 15:11:51 kubernetes-master kubelet[2303]: I1102 15:11:51.831519 2303 controller.go:114] kubelet config controller: starting controller
Nov 02 15:11:51 kubernetes-master kubelet[2303]: I1102 15:11:51.831386 2303 feature_gate.go:156] feature gates: map[]

Awesomemayank007 commented Nov 8, 2017

please switchoff your swap memory i faced same problem and when i remove swap entry from my /etc/fstab file .then it worked in my case.also do swapoff

Zouhuigang commented Nov 23, 2017

@awesomemayank007 Yes, but it doesn't work. What should I do?Do I need to restart the server in VM?

Cseeger-epages commented Nov 27, 2017

Nov 02 15:12:02 kubernetes-master kubelet[2308]: error: unable to load client CA file /etc/kubernetes/pki/ca.crt: open /etc/kubernetes/pki/ca.crt: no such file or directory

Arunm8489 commented Jan 11, 2018

#yum install -y kubelet kubeadm kubectl docker
Jst try installing docker 1.12. iam not getting solution with docker 1.17ce.( i think its not supported with kubelet)
Make swap off by #swapoff -a
Now reset kubeadm by #kubeadm reset
Now try #kudeadm init
after that check #systemctl status kubelet
it will be working


2.4: Present State - Biology

NA = Not addressed in regulations
NC = No category of facility
NL = Facility not licensed
SAC = School-age childre

* States includes the District of Columbia for a total of 51 entities.

For the purposes of this document, a licensed program is required to have permission from the State to operate and must meet specified family child care standards. Some States may call their regulatory processes certification or registration the term licensed is used to represent all regulatory processes.
Several States have county or city licensing regulations that may supersede State requirements this table does not include such regulations.

* For small FCC homes, children younger than age 12 who visit the home unaccompanied by an adult are counted in the maximum number of children allowed.

* A large/group FCC home (&ldquochild care group home&rdquo) requires only one provider if the provider has completed 1 year of licensed home child care or the equivalent or meets the college credit or CDA requirements and there are no more than a total of 10 children, with no children younger than the age of 30 months or no more than a total of 12 children who are all school-age. FCC regulations governing group size and ratio differ slightly between the State and the city of Anchorage.

* Regulations for large/group FCC homes include a staffing option of one provider caring for up to five children. Licensing is voluntary for these homes, unless the home receives public funds. Large/group FCC homes can have up to 15 children. Compensation can be received for up to 10 children. The remaining five must be the provider&rsquos own children or family members.

* A licensed home may care for two school-age children for not more than 3 hours per day before and/or after a school day these two children are not required to be counted in the child-staff ratio.

* Excludes child care that is provided for the children of only one family. For a small FCC home, the maximum number of children for whom care shall be provided, including children younger than age 10 who live in the licensee&rsquos home, are four infants six children, no more than three of whom may be infants or eight children, if at least two of the children are at least 6 years of age, no more than two infants are cared for during any time when more than six children are cared for, and the licensee notifies each parent that there may be up to seven or eight children in the home at one time. Large/group FCC homes may care for up to 14 children when at least 2 are at least 6 years of age, no more than 3 infants are in care, and the licensee notifies each parent that there may be up to 13 or 14 children in the home at one time.

* Excludes child care that is provided for the children of only one family. A small FCC home may be approved to care for three children younger than 2 years of age with no more than two children under 12 months, including the caregiver's own children, under the following conditions:

  1. The licensee has complied with all of the following requirements prior to approval of the license:
    • The licensee has held a full license to operate a family child care home for at least 2 years immediately prior to the issuance of the license that would authorize the care of 3 children younger than 2 years of age.
    • The licensee has completed 40 clock hours of approved training, which includes the required hours of training and first aid obtained when originally licensed (see Section 77.07.42, C, for content).
    • The licensee has had no substantiated complaints about care provided to children in the home in the past 2 years.
  2. No care of additional school-age children during nonschool hours may be authorized.

Colorado has separate rules that apply to infant and toddler and experienced provider homes.

* There are two levels of small FCC homes. A Level II provider has more extensive qualifications, as demonstrated by education, credentials, or experience specified in the rules, and is permitted to enroll more children. In Level I homes, the provider must meet the qualifications for initial licensure. The following table is an example of the differences that are permitted when the provider is more qualified:

Maximum Number of Children Number Younger Than 2 Years Number Younger than 1 Year Additional School-age Children Total
Level I 4 3 2 2 4+2=6
Level II 6 4 2 2 6+2=8

There are two types of large FCC homes. Type 1 large FCC homes may care for 712 children. A Type 2 large family child care home is also called an &ldquoinfant/toddler&rdquo home. The data reported in the table are for Level l small FCC homes and Type 1 large FCC homes.

* Excludes child care that is provided for the children of only one family.

* In large (&ldquogroup&rdquo) homes, mixed-age ratios are determined by the age of youngest child if younger than 3 ratios in groups with children older than 3 years of age are determined by the age of the majority of children.

* The State has a licensing law, but licensing is not required for centers and FCC homes at the State level. The State has voluntary licensing for small and large/group FCC homes. State certification is required for large/group FCC homes, which includes obtaining a fire inspection and a staff criminal history check.

* Excludes child care that is provided for the children of only one family. In a small FCC home, one provider may care for a group consisting of up to eight children younger than age 12, of which up to five children may be younger than age 5, of which up to three children may be younger than age 2 or up to eight children younger than age 12, of which up to six may be younger than age 5, of which up to two may be younger than 30 months of age. In a large/group FCC home, the provider and assistant may care for 16 children: no more than 12 can be younger than age 6, and no more than 6 can be younger than 30 months of age, of which no more than 4 can be younger than 15 months of age.

* Homes caring for five or fewer children are not required to register. Iowa registers three types of family child care homes: categories A, B, and C. The data reported in the table for small family child care are for category A homes. Requirements for category C homes are reported under large family child care.

* Homes caring for one to six children are registered. In a licensed large/group FCC home serving 712 children, the maximum number of children is as follows:

License Capacity, One Adult
Age of Children Enrolled License Capacity
2 ½ years to 11 years 9
3 years to 11 years 10
Kindergarten-age to 11 years 12

License Capacity, Two Adults
Max. Younger than 18 Months Max. 18 Months to Kindergarten -Age Kindergarten -Age to Age 11 License Capacity Max. Younger than 18 Months Max. 18 Months to
2 ½ years
License Capacity
0 7 3 10 0 5 12
1 5 4 10
2 4 3 9
3 3 2 8

Kansas also licenses homes with 7 to 10 children. In these FCC homes, one provider may care for the following:

Maximum Number Younger than 18 months Maximum Number 18 Months to Kindergarten-Age Kindergarten-Age
to 11 Years
Total Maximum
0 7 3 10
1 5 4 10
2 4 3 9
3 3 2 8

* The State also has certified FCC homes that are allowed to care for four to six children. Information reported is only for licensed FCC homes.

* A third category of FCC homes, Family Child Care Plus Home, is regulated by the licensing office. A provider in a Family Child Care Plus Home may care for up to eight children, provided that at least two of the eight children are school age.

* Excludes child care that is provided for the children of only one family.

* Small FCC homes providing care to infants only may enroll up to four infants. Large FCC homes providing care to infants only may enroll up to eight infants.

* The number of providers required and the maximum size of the group depends on the ages of children enrolled. The following table summarizes the requirements.

Ages and Number of Children Family Child Care Homes I: Number of Providers Family Child Care Homes II: Number of Providers
Infants Only 4 1 1
58 2 2
912 N/A 3
Mixed Ages 8 1 1
910 1 1
912 N/A 2
School-Age 910 1 1
1112 N/A 1

* A maximum of 10 children are allowed in large family child care homes if any child is younger than 2 years old.

* A small family child care home must be licensed if it cares for four or more children ages 24 months and younger, or six or more children at any time.

* The following tables summarize the child-staff ratios for large/group family child care homes:

A) If all children in care are in the same age group, the following determines the staff-child ratio.

B) If children in care include any infants and/or toddlers, the following table determines the staff-child ratio.

If more than 12 children are in care and 1 is younger than 24 months, the group must be separated. Each group must meet the appropriate staff-child ratio.

Practice note: groups may be arranged to have the younger child in a separate group with 1:8 ratio. For other group use ratios in Table A if all children are the same age use Table C if mixed ages.

If more than 12 children are in care and 2 are younger than 24 months, the group must be separated. Each group must meet the appropriate child-staff ratio.

Practice note: groups may be arranged to have the younger children in a separate group with 1:7 ratio. For other group use ratios in Table A if all children are the same age use Table C if mixed ages.

If more than 12 children are in care and over 3 are younger than 24 months, the group must be separated. Each group must meet the appropriate child-staff ratio.

Practice note: groups may be arranged to have the younger children in a group with 1:6 ratio. For other group use ratios in Table A if all children are the same age use Table C if mixed ages.

If more than 12 children are in care and 4 are younger than 24 months the group must be separated. Each group must meet the appropriate staff-child ratio and if more than 8 infants or toddlers are in care group size may not exceed 8.

Practice note: groups may be arranged to have the younger children in a separate group with 1:4 ratios in Table A if all children are the same age use Table C if mixed ages.

C) If children in care include a mix of only preschool- and school-age children, the following table determines the staff-child ratio.

Table C

Ages of Children in Care Group Size Child-Staff Ratio Notes
One child in care aged 24 months to eligible for 1st grade the rest of children in care are school-age 12 1:12 If more than 12 children are in care, the groups must be separated to create groups of 12 or fewer children.
Between 2 and 12 children are between 24 months and eligible for 1st grade, the rest of the children in care are school-age 12 1:10 If more than 12 children are in care, the groups must be separated to create groups of 12 or fewer children.

* The following table provides the large/group family child care home ratio and group sizes allowed by the State.

Same-Age Groupings Mixed Ages
Age Max Group Size Child-Staff Ratio Age Max Group Size Child-Staff Ratio
Birth12 months 12 4:1 Birth 36 months 12 4:1
13-24 months 12 5:1 13- 36 months 12 5:1
25-36 months 12 6:1 25 months
6 years
12 6:1
37 months
6 years
12 10:1 37 months
8 years
12 10:1
6-8 years 12 12:1 6-15 years 12 12:1
9-15 years 15 15:1
Number of Caregivers Required 1 Maximum Number of Children and Ages
1 Maximum of 15 present and no child present is under 3 years of age. 3
2 Maximum of 15 present and at least 1 child up to a maximum of 9 children present are under 3 years of age, but no more than 4 present are under 2 years of age. 3
3 Maximum of 15 if 10 or more are under 3 years of age. 3

1 If any child&rsquos physical or mental condition requires special care, if children under 9 living in the home increases the group size, or when a field trip is taken off premises, the number of caregivers required shall be increased by one.

2 Before 8 or more children are enrolled, the facility shall be approved by a fire safety inspector and by an environmentalist.

3 If over 12 children are enrolled, the additional children shall be of school-age and a school-age program shall be provided.

* Texas requires family child care homes that care for one to three children to be listed with the State. No inspections are conducted, and there are no standards to meet. Small family child care homes are required to be registered and meet State requirements large family child care homes are required to be licensed. Regulations for registered and licensed homes are combined, with specific stipulations included for each type of home. The following tables present the child-staff ratios and maximum group sizes allowed by the State. A large (licensed) family child care home with 3 providers may care for up to 12 children of any age birth through age 13.

Small (Registered) Family Child Care Combinations
0 - 17 Months 18 Months and Older SAC 5 Years and Older Max
0 6 6 12
0 5 7 12
0 4 8 12
0 3 9 12
0 2 10 12
0 1 11 12
0 0 12 12
1 5 4 10
1 4 5 10
1 3 6 10
1 2 7 10
1 1 8 10
1 0 9 10
2 4 2 8
2 3 3 8
2 2 4 8
2 1 5 8
2 0 6 8
3 3 1 7
3 2 2 7
3 1 3 7
3 0 4 7
4 2 0 6
4 1 1 6
4 0 2 6

Large (Licensed) Family Child Care Combinations with One Provider
0 - 17 Months 18 Months - 3 Years 4 Years and Older Max
0 8 4 12
0 7 5 12
0 6 6 12
0 5 7 12
0 4 8 12
0 3 9 12
0 2 10 12
0 1 11 12
0 0 12 12
1 6 4 11
1 5 5 11
1 4 6 11
1 3 7 11
1 2 8 11
1 1 9 11
1 0 10 11
2 5 3 10
2 4 4 10
2 3 5 10
2 2 6 10
2 1 7 10
2 0 8 10
3 2 1 6
3 1 2 6
4 0 0 4

Large (Licensed) Family Child Care Combinations with Two Providers
0 - 17 Months 18 Months and Older Max
0 12 12
1 11 12
2 10 12
3 9 12
4 8 12
5 7 12
6 6 12
7 5 12
8 4 12
9 3 12
10 0 10

* Small family child care homes that care for up to four children may voluntarily become registered homes that care for one to eight children may elect to become licensed. Small family child care requirements reported in the table are for homes required to have a residential certificate.

* Vermont regulates two types of small homes. Homes with 3­6 children must be registered, and homes with 312 children are licensed. A registered family child care home may care for up to 12 children during the summer if 2 caregivers are on duty. In a licensed family child care home, when only children younger than age 3 are enrolled, two staff are required for four to seven children, and three staff are required when eight or more children are in care.

* In determining the need for an assistant, the following ratios are required, including the provider&rsquos own and resident children younger than 8 years of age:

Age of Child Ratio
Birth - 15 months 4:1
16 - 23 months 5:1
24 years 8:1
5 - 9 years 16:1
10 years and older Not counted

When children are in mixed-age groups, the provider shall apply the following point system in determining the need for an assistant. Each caregiver shall not exceed 16 points. The provider's own and resident children under 8 years of age count in point maximums.

Age of Child Points
Birth - 15 months 4
16 - 23 months 3
2 - 4 years 2
5 - 9 years 1
10 years and older 0
Number of Providers Required Age Range Max Number of Children Younger than 2 Years Max Number of Children
A. Licensee Birth11 years 2 6
B. Licensee with 1 year experience 2 - 11 years None 8
C. Licensee with 1 year experience 5 - 11 years None 10
D. Licensee with 1 year experience plus assistant Birth - 11 years 4 9
E. Licensee with 2 years experience and one early care and education (ECE) class 3 - 11 years None 10
F. Licensee with 2 years experience and one ECE class plus assistant Birth - 11 years 4 12

* The maximum number of children per provider allowed by the State is outlined in the following chart.

Maximum Number of Children Per Provider
Younger than 2 Years 2 Years and Older Max Number of Additional
Children in First Grade or Above, in Care for Fewer than 3 Hours a Day
Max Number
Per Provider
0 8 0 8
1 7 0 8
2 5 1 8
3 2 3 8
4 0 2 6

* Excludes child care that is provided for the children of only one family.

Data Provided by: National Child Care Information and Technical Assistance Center

10530 Rosehaven St., Suite 400 • Fairfax, VA 22030 | Phone: (800) 616-2242 • Fax: (800) 716-2242 • TTY: (800) 516-2242


3 Conclusion

In summary, we provide a systematic study of the influence of various organic solvents on the phase, microstructure, and conductivity of the superionic argyrodite Li6PS5Cl (synthesized via classical high-temperature technique) as well as the resulting effects on performance in cathodes with NCM as CAM. X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and XPS suggest that the electrolyte may be stable against the solvents ACN, toluene, and THF, in contrast to the alcohols EtOH and MeOH, where a clear decomposition can be observed. Impedance spectroscopy shows the detrimental influence of the solvents on the total ionic conductivity. Toluene, despite having little impact on structure, decreased the conductivity more than 20-fold. In addition, the changing microstructures after solvent treatments and the changing consistency may influence the solid-state battery performance. In/LiIn│Li6PS5Cl│NCM-622:Li6PS5Cl cells revealed that the predominant increase in resistance stems from the SE/CAM interface. The worst cycling performance was seen in the cells using THF- and toluene-treated solid electrolytes, whereas ACN treatment led to stable cycling similar to the pristine Li6PS5Cl.

This work shows the importance of the selection of the solvent for processing cathode composites for solid-state batteries. Although typically optimization of solid-state battery comprises the mixing, particle size distribution, and protective coatings, alongside the search for faster solid ion conductors, the careful choice of a solvent for a slurry processing needs to not only be considered, but fully tested.


#5 2015-11-29 01:49:13

Re: [SOLVED] linux4.2.4-1 No Video Output

Are you using a display manager?  Which one?

Can you change to a different console with CTRL-ALT-F2 and login?

No, screen remains black. It's like something during boot makes screen completely dysfunctional.

If you can ssh in, you can read the journal.  Anything interesting in the Journal?

I couldn't find anything obviously wrong in system.journal

What is your graphics chip set?  Is it a hybrid graphics system?

01:05.0 VGA compatible controller: Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. [AMD/ATI] RS690M [Radeon Xpress 1200/1250/1270]
This isn't a hybrid graphics system.

I updated again today, with forced update of all packages, and still a black screen.


Elements describe the essential outcomes.

Performance criteria describe the performance needed to demonstrate achievement of the element.

1. Investigate Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander culture

1.1 Use sources of information to identify significant elements of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander culture, with input from Elders and/or Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander community members

1.2 Identify differences between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander culture and other cultures

2. Outline how belief systems impact on day-to-day life

2.1 Discuss the belief systems of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities, with input from Elders and/or Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander community members

2.2 Identify the impact of belief systems on the day-to-day life of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities

3. Investigate the impact of cultural differences

3.1 Use sources of information to research ideas, with input from Elders and/or Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander community members

3.2 Record information gathered in an appropriate format

4. Present findings of investigations

4.1 Identify audience and purpose of presentation

4.2 Select and organise presentation content

4.3 Deliver a presentation in an appropriate format

4.4 Review presentation to identify areas for improvement


Watch the video: Notes for IB Biology Chapter (January 2022).